Africa: Technology Can Help Kids Learn, but Only If Parents and Teachers Are Involved

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Educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom wanted to understand how people learn. So in 1965 he and his colleagues created Bloom’s taxonomy : a system for identifying, understanding and addressing learning. They came up with a system that’s composed of two elements: thinking and the ability to apply knowledge, and then feelings and emotions.

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When a student learns about gravity, the cognitive elements would include knowledge and understanding of the concept of a force pulling an object towards the Earth; acceleration, mass and so on. The moment the student has developed understanding, she would be in a position to apply (psychomotor) – the acquired knowledge and skills in new situations. For example, she might want to see what would happen if something different was done to the same object – would it experience the same acceleration?

This learning process doesn’t happen in an isolated context. It takes place during interactions with peers and teachers – what the model refers to as the affective domain. That is the elements of learning that affect emotional development. Elements of interest, motivation and values would help the student to appreciate the discussion and value the ideas as well as encourage her to develop social skills appropriate to working in groups. Eventually, development of this domain benefits broader communities and society as a whole.

Some researchers claim that integrating technology into teaching and learning improves students’ grades. Others argue that technology makes little difference to how students perform because traditional approaches to teaching still predominate.

A lot of research in this area has focused on technology as a tool. But what is the value of technology as a medium to encourage interactions between parents, teachers and students – tapping into the affective domain – and ensure that students construct knowledge?

Myself and other academics from the Mauritius Institute of Education and London’s  Brunel University wanted to know how technology could be used to transform the teaching and learning process into an innovative, interactive environment that promotes students’ cognitive development driven by the affective domain. So we embarked on  a study that attempted to build a case for incorporating the affective domain in the teaching and learning of physics using technology.

A space to develop the affective domain

The study was carried out in two phases: exploratory and evaluative. The evaluative phase confirmed the findings made in the exploratory phase.

The exploratory phase involved one teacher, 22 students (all 13 and 14 years old) from a coeducational school situated in Mauritius’ central region and 19 parents.

In the evaluative phase 31 students from an all-girls’ school (in the same region as the first school), 15 parents and one physics teacher participated.

We developed a framework called the Pedagogical Technological Integrated Medium. It is founded on a well-documented framework, TPACK, which was created to facilitate the use of technology in schools. Our framework helps learners to create knowledge and develop an understanding of physics through interactions between teachers, students and parents.

We created an interactive website to monitor how parents, teachers and students were engaging with the framework. The site encompasses a series of home tasks (parent-student and parent-teacher interactions), in-class tasks (student-teachers) and out-of-school activities (parent-student-teacher interactions).

For instance, students used the website to consolidate their existing knowledge of measurement as a concept in physics. They did this in collaboration with their parents before attending classes.

The experiment showed that learners benefited enormously from the approach we had adopted. By creating the affective domain through interactions with their parents (at home) and teachers (at school), the students were able to construct physics knowledge. The added dimension was that we used technology as a medium to meet this end.

Benefits of our approach

The framework was well received by students, parents and teachers. One parent told us:

I was happy that my daughter was discussing with me and I encouraged her to complete all the tasks and to tell me if she had any difficulty.

Students said they wanted to do more activities and be provided with more notes on the website because this would help them “to learn better”. One said,

I would like to try it first before learning it [the concept] at school.

The teachers were also happy. One said that, “the activities contained in the web lesson have helped me to understand in which specific areas students hold misconceptions”. The teacher also hailed the chance to “innovate in my teaching”.

Integrating the affective domain into our model has shown the potential of key educational stakeholders – parents, students and teachers – to collaborate. The teacher established a network with parents and learners and used the insights gained to construct her interactive lessons.

The schools we worked with are planning to use the website to sustain the interaction that’s been developed between teachers, students and parents. We also plan to get more schools in Mauritius using this system.

The affective domain matters

Our study has provided evidence of a change in students’ attitudes: they claimed to be interested, motivated and better prepared to learn new concepts in class.

It’s been known for a long time that educational technology can offer opportunities for cognitive development in learning science. We’ve now proved that this isn’t sufficient unless the affective domain forms an integral part of teaching and learning when technology is integrated into the process.

Disclosure statement

Yashwant Ramma receives funding from Mauritius Research Council.

Source : The Conversation

About Attitude                About Values                About Behaviour


Congo-Kinshasa: New Study Reveals Economic Toll of Malnutrition in Democratic Republic of Congo

The Cost of Hunger in Africa (COHA) study was undertaken by the government of DRC in collaboration with the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), the African Union Commission (AUC), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), and the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

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The study shows that the losses are incurred each year through increased healthcare costs, additional burdens to the education system and reduced workforce productivity.

“I welcome this important joint initiative which will contribute significantly to the government’s efforts to minimize the loss of human and economic potential to malnutrition,” said DRC Prime Minister and Head of Government Bruno Tshibala Nzenzhe, at the launch ceremony in Kinshasa. “Malnutrition is a silent emergency, accounting for nearly half of all infant deaths. For the country to develop, we need to address this situation urgently.”

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According to the report, DRC could save up to CDF355 billion (around US$383. million) by 2025 if the prevalence of underweight children is reduced from 11 to 5 percent and if stunting (low growth for age) is reduced from 43 to 10 percent.

“These results call on all of us to act now to avoid future losses caused by hunger,” said WFP Country Director in DRC, Claude Jibidar. “I’m convinced that with the understanding we now have of the terrible economic and social impact of malnutrition on children, we and our partners can work with the government to make a real difference to this alarming situation.”

“In line with Agenda 2063 – ‘The Africa we want’ – we seek to completely eliminate hunger and food insecurity on this continent during coming decades,” said Kefilwe Moalosi, speaking on behalf of the African Union Commission and NEPAD. “Africa has the potential to reap a demographic dividend from a young, educated and skilled workforce. But this potential can only be harnessed if we continue to invest in the health and nutrition of its people, particularly its women and children, and secure the necessary economic growth”.

The Cost of Hunger in Africa study has so far been conducted in 11 countries. The economies of these countries suffer an estimated annual loss associated with child undernutrition that is equivalent to between 1.9 percent and 16.5 percent of GDP. Results of recently undertaken COHA studies are due to be released soon in Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Similar studies are being planned for Mali and Mauritania.

Source : United Nations  World Food Programme

The Declining Role of The Steel Sub-Sector in Broadening the Productive Base of the Nigerian Economy

Over the years, the steel sub-sector has performed below expectation, in its defined role to broaden the productive base of the Nigerian economy.

Although it is supposed to make available raw materials to industry, in addition to forming the market for solid minerals like iron ore, bauxite, petroleum coke and pitch, soda ash and calcium, this has not been the case.

Indeed, Government’s involvement in this sub-sector for several years has not improved its fortunes, as the case has  been in the  steel plants in Osogbo, Ajaokuta and Aladja.  These steel rolling plants when operational, functioned at very low capacities.

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In the case of Aluminum, the Aluminum Smelter  Plant at Ikot Abasi, a joint effort of the Federal Government and some foreign private investors, began partial operation after almost a decade of construction, functioned for almost a year and half, before it shut down.

Appreciable development in the sub-sector has up till the present time, been haunted by below average planning and implementation of projects, mismanagement, poor working conditions, lack of maintenance culture, shortage  of  infrastructure, increasing  debts and the inability of certain category of stakeholders to access loans from financial institutions and misleading media propaganda.

For Government, to make an headway in the sub-sector, it should encourage the development of linkage sectors to steel and aluminum activities, understand, review and encourage private sector needs, and work towards the formulation of  a policy  on aluminum.

With the above mentioned as a basis for achieving a turn around of the steel sub-sector, devoid of sinister and self-centered motives, the  sub-sector will play  its expected role in broadening the productive base of the economy. Maybe.

African Least Developed Countries Need Greater ‘Momentum’ to Graduate From LDC Status

Kigali 15 December (ECA)- After several years of resilience following the global financial crisis, economic growth in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) has declined sharply since 2012 and significantly reduced their chances of graduating out of a LDC status.

According to “Least Developed Countries Report 2016: The path to graduation and beyond: Making the most of the process” – a new report released on Tuesday by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – global poverty is increasingly concentrated within the group of 48 LDC countries, which are falling further behind the rest of the world in terms of economic development.

Currently, approximately 80 percent (38 of the 48) of the LDCs are African. According to UNCTAD’s projections, by 2025 the LDCs group would be composed of 32 countries, and all but two (Cambodia and Haiti) in Africa. In Eastern Africa, there is a particularly notable concentration of countries which classify as LDCs – 12 of the 14 fourteen are currently part of LDC group (Burundi, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania).

Speaking at an ECA Policy Dialogue to discuss the findings of UNCTAD’s report, Mr. Andrew Mold, Acting Director of ECA in the Sub-Regional Office for Eastern Africa, explained that the UN classifies a country as an LDC if it has a combination of both a low per capita income and scores lowly on two composite indicators relating to the level of human development and degree of economic vulnerability.

Insight Into African Integration & Industrialization @ #UNCTAD14

Insight Into African Integration & Industrialization @ #UNCTAD14

Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) speakers offered a plethora of insight at the 14th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development #UNCTAD14, taking place in Nairobi, Kenya, from 17-22 July. ECA panelists talked about why extractive industries’ policy should ensure their revenues are used to particularly “transform the lives of those in the local area where the extraction is taking place”; why regional integration among African countries grows innovation, which enhances competition, and how investing in STEM education is the key to developing that innovative capacity. Finally, ECA’s executive secretary Carlos Lopes talked about boosting agricultural productivity and the transformational effect this has had on the Ethiopian economy. More about the ECA in this BRIEFING.

Mold clarified that LDCs typically suffer from three types of development traps: first, low incomes which lead to low investment, limited economic growth, and high levels of poverty; secondly, a low-level of economic diversification and heavy dependency on primary commodities exports, and finally, weak productive capacities.

The report argues that graduating from the LDC category should be achieved concomitantly with a rapid structural transformation of the economy, so that countries can better take advantage of the global economy.

During the policy dialogue, it was noted that only a very limited number of LDC have graduated to date – only four countries in the 45 years since this classification was established (Botswana in 1994, Cape Verde in 2007, Maldives in 2011 and Samoa in 2014. Other countries, such as Equatorial Guinea, Tuvalu and Angola, are forecast to graduate over the next few years, but pointedly only one in Eastern Africa (Djibouti).

Discussing ways of increasing the prospects for graduation from LDC status, Mr. Mold called for countries in the region to scale up public investments, including projects that strategically address bottlenecks in the productive sector, as well as accelerating the transformation of rural economies by upgrading agriculture and promoting non-farm activities.

Mold also highlighted that countries could graduate faster with more effective help from the international community in terms of finance, trade and technology. “Donors need to fulfill their long-standing commitments for assistance to LDCs and most importantly align their support more closely with national development strategies”, he said.

Source : United Nations Economic Commission For Africa

East Africa: What Makes Nairobi the Only African City in Global Investors Top Five Watchlist

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Nairobi is on the global watchlist of top five fast modernising cities that are attracting new global business on growing realisation that big companies cannot operate from one sub-Saharan location in South Africa.

The city is also taking off as a hub for global corporations looking to establish an office to cover the East African region, according to Global Cities – The 2016 Report by Knight Frank.

Big companies with global reach have come to the conclusion that they need to operate from multiple locations and Nairobi is a natural starting point in entering or expanding to new regions.

Nairobi has been termed as demonstrating Africa’s rapid modernisation and joins other cities like Dubai, United Arab Emirates capital, which is said to have pulled clear of past difficulties and is expanding as a hub for investment, tourism and transport.

Others are Kuala Lumpar in Malaysia, Bangkok in Thailand and Moscow, Russia.

The report indicates that around 1.8 million square feet of modern shopping mall space was opened in 2015 and the space forecast to increase.

“Given that the mall stock previously had totalled 980,000 square feet, this amounts to a revolution in the city’s retail experience, which matches the huge economic and demographic changes that have unfolded in Kenya,” said James Roberts, the chief economist at Knight Frank.

With the world’s cities predicted to add 380 million new citizens in the next five years, new mass transit systems, utilities and faster connections to markets will be needed.

The Lamu Port and Lamu-South Sudan-Ethiopia transport Corridor (Lapsset) has been termed as one of the global infrastructure projects that will be generating new business clusters and creating real estate opportunities.

The project consists of a new 30-berth port and oil refinery at Lamu, which will be connected to Nairobi and the borders of Ethiopia and South Sudan by rail, road and oil pipeline.

Other mega infrastructure projects include; China’s global railway links – China is using rail to speed up freight transport to Europe on a route running through Russia or via Iran and Turkey.

The Chinese are also constructing the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) from the Port of Mombasa to Nairobi and these projects form part of China’s one belt, one road programme to enhance trade routes.

In Ethiopia, a new Chinese-funded railway line between Addis Ababa and the Red Sea port of Djibouti was expected to begin operations before end year.

In Nigeria, a Chinese firm won the $12 billion (Sh1.212 trillion) contract to build an 870 mile railway between Lagos in the West and Calabar in the East.

Other projects are; The Delhi – Mumbai Industrial Corridor – This is a development zone that will be targeted for investment to build up new industries to support India’s rapid urbanisation.

Expanding the Panama and Suez Canals is another mega project. Presently, ships queue to transit the Panama Canal whose original locks are restricted to ‘panamax’ ships that carry around 5,000 containers.

A new set of locks completes construction by end year that will offer passage to ‘post-panamax’ ships that can carry up to 13,000 containers.

A super airport – In Dubai, Al Maktoum International Airport which opened in 2010, is to be expanded from a current freight capacity of one million tonnes of cargo per annum to 16 million tonnes.

The report notes that Kenya is seeing a surge in electronic payments via mobile phone.

“The country is undoubtedly a developing world success story,” said Mr Roberts.

Kenya’s Economic Survey 2016 Outlook showed that last year mobile telephone subscriptions increased to 37.7 million, resulting to penetration rate of 85.4 per cent.

Swelling middle class

Internet subscriptions increased significantly from 16.4 million in 2014 to 23.9 million in 2015. The number of licensed Internet Service Providers (ISPs) increased from 177 to 221 over the same period.

The number of mobile money transfer service subscribers grew to 26.8 million last year, with total amount of money transacted through mobile platform expanded by 18.7 per cent to Sh2.816 trillion over the review period.

The global cities report said that while agriculture retains a large share of Gross Domestic Production (GDP), the country is developing a broad-based economy with rising services and production industries.

“The country is a fast growing centre for Information Technology (IT) and telecom industries in Africa, and output from Information and Communication industries has risen by 30 per cent between 2011 and 2014 in constant prices.

Finance and insurance output is up by 24 per cent over the same period,” the report showed.

For 2016, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is forecasting Kenyan GDP to expand by nearly 7.2 per cent, compared to 2.1 per cent for South Africa and five per cent for Nigeria.

As a result of this economic transformation, Mr Roberts said the ranks of Kenya’s middle class are swelling thanks to so much growth in service industries.

“They are now living, working and shopping ever more in line with developed world expectation, as well as a modern retail experience and international brands, there is rising demand for food and leisure outlets, now that shopping is increasingly combined with socialising. This is why Nairobi needs more modern retail stock,” said Mr Roberts in the report.

United Nations (UN) is forecasting that by 2020, the country’s urban population will expand to 14.7 million people, an increase of nearly 2.8 million.

Knight Frank’s head of London Residential Research, Tom Bill said that for investors and landlords there are clear long-term rewards in the world of short-term rental accommodation.

“Cities that embrace the flexibility of models like serviced apartments will reap the economic rewards,” said Mr Bill.

The report said ensuring quality levels of short-term accommodation will be a challenge, particularly given that future economic growth will be dominated by emerging markets.

For the serviced apartment market, it underlines the growing importance of branding and the uniform quality of services and booking systems.

For example, the report said the quality of serviced apartments in Kenya matches that of a hotel, but it’s done relatively informally to date. “The next level will mean more professionalism and a branded type of offer,” it stated.

The country has also been identified as easy in doing business.

In the World Bank’s Doing Business Index for 2017, Kenya climbed 21 positions to rank 92nd out of 190 countries.

That included jumps of 34 positions for ‘Starting a Business’, 21 positions for ‘Getting Electricity’, 25 positions in ‘Protecting Minority Investors’, and 48 positions for ‘Resolving Insolvency’.

UN notes that there is going to be more demand for modern retail over the next five years, although the shopping development pipeline is ready to meet the challenge.

By next year, a further 1.3 million square feet of modern retail space will complete development in Nairobi, as the city is expanding from being the economic focus of East Africa into its biggest modern shopping destination.

Source : The East African

Rwanda: Gasabo Youth Makes Fortune From Banana Stems

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Banana is like the tale about seven blind people and the elephant. To some people, it’s food, for a farmer it is fodder for animals, and for alcohol manufacturers; it is a raw material for some gins and beer like Urwagwa.

But for one youth in Gasabo district in Kigali province of Rwanda, the banana plant has a whole new meaning. Every morning, Celse Ngaruye wakes up in the morning to hunt for banana stems which he later makes into a final product: the banana lampshades.

When he has collected enough banana stems for the day, he chops them into small pieces, packs them in a sack and makes his way back to his art studio at Niyo Arts center based in Kacyiru. The banana stems are key raw material for his enteprise.

“Apart from the bulb and sockets, our final product is uniquely Rwandan,” he explains. Ngaruye says since he started the enterprise, he has had steady stream of customers, mostly tourists, who are impressed by the unique lampshades made from local products.

“I sell most of these eco-friendly products during the tourism peak periods, from May to November. This is the time, when many tourists flock into the country,” he says.

He says the lampshades he makes during the other months target local clients.

He adds that his other buyers include big hotels around Kigali, and individuals, who like ambiance the local lampshades create in bedrooms or living rooms.

“I have already started getting bulk orders from key hospitality industry players, like hotels. When they make their orders, they are free to dictate the style of the lampshades. I don’t mind this since I value my clients and their opinions,” says Ngaruye.

He notes that what has also endeared him to customers is the fact that buyers are free to choose their favourite colours.

He explains that the lampshades come in different colours, depending on the hue of the paper and ‘ibitenge’ fabrics used. Each lampshade costs between $100 (about Rwf80,000) and $150 (about Rwf120,000), when he sells to tourists, while Rwandans buy them at a bargain price.

The former visual artist says he has now concentrated on making lampshades abandoning his first love – painting – “because this business is more lucrative.”

“I realised that there’s a lot of competition when it comes to visual arts since many youth are into it. But making banana paper lampshades is a new phenomenon in Rwanda… it’s still a virgin field,” he says.


Ngaruye, who is soon holding a banana lampshade exhibition, says since his main buyers are tourists, that “business is low during off season (time when there are few tourists coming into the country)”.

Source : The Independent(Kampala)

Sierra Leone: President Koroma Turns Sod for the Construction of 3 Ultra-Modern Hospitals


As part of government’s health sector reform, President Ernest Bai Koroma on Wednesday November 2, 2016 turned the sod for the construction of three ultra-modern tertiary hospitals in the Western Area, including Waterloo, Lumley and Bambara Town respectively.

The project is funded by the Kuwaiti Government in collaboration with the Government of Sierra Leone.

During the groundbreaking ceremony, President Koroma told the three communities that development is a gradual process that does not happen overnight. He said it took considerable time for countries today referred to as developed countries to reach that height. Programmes like this, the president emphasized, have not been unusual to his government.

“We had been doing things like this when Ebola struck and brought everything to a standstill,” he told the cheering communities, reminding them that November 7th will mark one year since it was declared Ebola free. The Ebola consequences and effects are still ranging but as a caring government President Koroma said “we shall continue to provide you the services as that was the mandate you gave to us.” He said service delivery is paramount to his government and hence the introduction of the Free Healthcare system which resulted to saving many lives in the country.

To show that his government is people-centred and remains committed, the Head of State highlighted among other things, the achievements of his government which included the provision of electricity supply, road construction, water supply, maintenance of peace and stability as well as the introduction of the Free Healthcare initiative over the past eight years. With conviction, he said, the All People’s Congress (APC) among other political organizations only has the boldness to move this country forward, and come the next ten years the party will continue to do more until Sierra Leone reaches the apex of development.

Briefly talking on the country’s economic situation, the president called on all to remain resilient and be confident that very shortly things would turn around. He said the economic hardship is not just about Sierra Leone, it is affecting the world over and it is not by anybody’s making. Ours, he said, was caused by the twin shocks of the Ebola outbreak and the considerable fall in iron ore prices. But with all this, he remarked, Sierra Leone was considered one of the best in the sub-region and even in the world for its development strides.

After demonstrating the designs of the ultra-modern hospitals in the three communities – Macauley Street, Lumley and Waterloo by IDEAS Limited architects, the Chief Executive called on the community people to provide effective coordination and monitoring mechanisms to avoid stealing of materials meant for the project. He noted that with proper monitoring, the 100 beds hospitals for Waterloo, 60 beds for Macauley Street and 85 beds for Lumley will last to serve generations yet unborn.

Source : Government of Sierra Leone



By Engr. Prof. S. A. Olagoke, JP



Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development is a development that meets the needs, takes care of present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs taking into consideration the matrix mix of the environment, social and economic parameters.




Figure 1: Matrix of Sustainable Development




Nigeria Situation Report

The questions are what the strength in Nigeria of our:

Project feasibility (Environment-Economic condition)

Market viability (Socio-economic status)

Equitability state for system security (social-environment state)


Against the above backdrop of the following situation reports in Nigeria, let us assess the success rate expectation under our situation of:

56million adult illiterates

10.5million children/youth out of school

Nigeria is 161/182 worst illiterates countries in the world


In the world over, we have 774million illiterates based on the United Nations report (2015) through various committees of experts in various disciplines set out Agenda to save the situation across all nations, for example UNICEF on Education, WHO, MDG and recently the SDGs.  Performances on the implementation of education policy including funding are poor, due to the poor allocation of below 10% on the average against the UNICEF recommended minimum of 26% of the annual budget.  What of our health care status, the Human Development Index (HDI) too!  They are poor!  A critical challenge to leadership and governance!!!


Factor of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)

Performance in the implementation of the MDG (2000-2015) that is supposed to be bedrock pre-requisite for the implementation of the SDGs is equally poor.  The MDGs for all nations were revolutionary in providing a common language to reach global agreement.  The eight (8) goals were realistic and easy to communicate, with a clear measurement monitoring mechanism.  For Nigeria the table below refers:



            Table 1: Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Rating Remarks
Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Low and poor Nigeria is operated within the extreme region of kleptocracy and abject poverty corruption and wasteful spending dominates governance


Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education Low participation in governance and access to loan
Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women Fair
Goal 4 Reduce child mortality Fair
Goal 5 Improve maternal health Fair
Goal 6 Combating HIV/AIDs, malaria, and other diseases Good but with less participation by ——- and youth.  Control through first ladies
Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability Fair
Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for development Fair


Substantial progress has been made regarding the MDGs the MDG fund. The world has already realized the first MDG of halving the extreme poverty rate by 2015, however, the achievement have been uneven, for example, very low in Nigeria.  The focus is now on building sustainable world where environmentally sustainability, social inclusion and economic development are equally valued.  In Nigeria, the situation on this needs to be improved upon, to meet the expected world standard for each nation.  The table 2 below refers.


Nigeria Democracy and Sustainable Development Goal

Study critically the table 2 below to assess Nigeria performance and status on sustainable goals:


Table 2: Sustainable Development Rating

S/n System System Matrix Target Performance Rating Security Implication
1 Economic Sustainability Production of goods and services on a continuous basis


Maintenance of manageable level of government and external debts


Agricultural or industrial production are not badly affected






Bad situation and high debts at federal, state and local governments



High cost of living

Low purchasing power of Naira

Companies relocating to other countries

Employment challenge


High level of social insecurity: armed robbery, arson, corruption etc.


Survival need leading to Advanced Fee Fraud, insurgence and terrorist acts

2 Environmental Sustainability Maintenance of stable resource base





Avoidance of over exploitation of renewable resources, system and depletion of non-renewable resources


Maintenance of biodiversity, atmospheric stability and other ecosystem function

Disruptive environment

Over dependence on oil.



Low mining activities










Environmental degradation leading to Niger Delta militant activities




Artisanal mining leading to  food and drink poisoning







Environmental pollution

Ozone layer depletion, global warming, green house effect on the increase

3 Social Sustainability Adequate provision of social services including health, education, gender equity, political accountability and participation Low ebb Low development

Low access to basic amenities

High level of violence, instability and insecurity

4 Environment and Economic mix Feasibility Low Investment attraction is low due to high level of insecurity
5 Social and Economic mix Viability low Resources are more than adequate but provisions are not sufficient
6 Social and Environmental mix Equitability Low and poor Peoples’ need are not met

Discrimination is rife

Marginalisation is remarkable

Deprivation leads to discord, acrimony, industrial disharmony

High level of insecurity

Remarks: sustainable development in Nigeria is yet to be met:


Present life styles of poverty (poor), kleptomania (elite) axis are not acceptable and unbequethable to the next generation

Nigeria socio-economic, political and environment status is a development pattern that perpetuate today’s inequalities

It is therefore neither sustained nor worthy of sustaining


For sustainability to be achieved, the matrix-mix conditions must be met for democratic practice to achieve peace (Olagoke, 2010)



Democracy :


Measure of Security:  ∆H =  T∆S


Where: T         = polity heat level temperature

∆S        = entropy or degree of disorderliness

∆H or security measure is high where the environment is that of impunity (secularity or absence of fear of God). But ∆H is low, where divinity is the environment in which the leader and the people live by the aura of God that is with ability to manage positions through religious lesson application by intuition (fear of God, matter of conscience).  This is a scripture guidance approach where Timocracy must not be a pre-requisite condition for democracy.  There must be zero tolerance to corruption.  For the houses of God to be relevant, let us make Theo-democracy work as our political philosophy.



The MDGs was guided in approach by the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on development as a right, with targeted attention directed towards traditionally marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities, indigenous groups and women.  Unfortunately, in Nigeria, the impact was low because it was hijacked by the elite to the disadvantage of the masses it aimed at to take care.  Observation shows that low level of education of the vulnerables was responsible for the criminal diversion of the grants to elites’ personal causes.  Bill Clinton (1994) submitted that illiteracy is not a luxury.  Education therefore for the youth in particular is essential for any country to functionally implement the MDG.  Political will, in addition will be needed for SDGs.  Therefore education must have a boost for ease of implementation.  Sensitization of the entire people by the National Orientation Agency, NYSC and other stakeholders through the Media is equally of practical essential.



‘We cannot solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them’ (Albert Einstein).  With the ICT enhanced education on ground, youth involvement on sustainable development goals is very crucial to create the world we desire.  Young people are the leaders of today and pivotal in tackling global development issues and playing a key role in the decision making processes at all levels of society.


Youth involvement is crucial in the following ways:

In the SDGs framework by mobilizing more young people in developing a sense of ownership and awareness about the challenges they are presently facing

Could leverage collective action and attitude changes in environmental protection, sustainable consumption patterns

Enhance effectiveness of peace and development efforts through participatory forms of monitoring and accountability


It is imperative therefore that youth forum all parts of world, Nigeria inclusive, participate actively in all relevant levels of decision-making processes because it affects their lives today and has implications for their future.  Youth must therefore be provided a secure healthy future including an environment of quality, improved standards of living and access to education and employment.  Voluntary organizations under the umbrella of National Youth Council are expected to get organized and:


Receive and acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development to solve youth issues

Must be encouraged to be involved in conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems

Must be supported to recycle and avoid unsustainable consumptions including over consumptions

Educate young people with right skills to implement resident agricultural practices to eradicate hunger in their communities

National Youth Council must promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation and entrepreneurship, apprenticeship, creativity and innovation

Must have access to economic and social opportunities in order for them to share economic growth, live healthy lives and contribute to household, community and national well-being

Organize performances that can equip young people with the right skills and knowledge to eradicate poverty at their communities and society in order to achieve the sustainable development goals

Youth must be involved in decision making as well as at the implementation stage of projects

National Youth Council must form partnerships, share resources and knowledge with all stakeholders, consider young peoples’ contributions and covert into valuable assets.



Today young people have abundance of talent, enthusiasm, optimism and strong commitment to strengthen their societies and improve the conditions for families and communities.  This gives them the strength to resolve issues of inequity, poverty and sustainability.


More than half of the world’s population is under the age of 30 and in many developing countries, young people account for a third or more of the population. As such, a large group, their concerns reflect in every aspect of the SDG agenda.  It is unfortunate therefore that the youth is usually sidelined in the society, disenfranchised politically, socially marginalized, inadequately educated and/or under employed and not employed.


A global youth led mentorship framework is therefore necessary to capitalize on youths’ innate interests, abilities and capacities to innovate and lead.  It needs to succeed, the support and mandate of mentors, enabling conditions, political will and resources at community, national and global levels.  This is the critical empowerment they need.



Marbel (2015) submitted that children/youth will be critical agents of change in the implementation of the SDGs through the following roles:


Critical thinking – youth have the capacity to identify and challenge existing power structures and barriers to change and to expose contradictions and biases.  Be agent of change.

Change makers – has the power to act and mobilise others.  Youth activism is on the rise the world over, bolstered by broader connectivity and access to social media.

Innovators – young people do have fresh perspectives, direct knowledge of and insights into issues that are not accessible to adults.  Youth best understand the problems they face and can offer new ideas and alternative solutions. Let the elders make use of them to achieve the SDGs.



Youth in Nigeria face the challenge of un-employability due to facility update challenge in schools and unemployment problems, for example:


Table 3: National Unemployment Rates (1991-2005)

Survey Period Composite Urban Rural
December 1991 3.1 4.9 2.7
1992 3.5 4.8 3.0
1993 3.4 4.0 3.2
1994 3.2 4.0 2.8
1995 1.9 3.6 1.6
1996 2.8 4.4 2.4
1997 3.4 5.7 2.8
1998 3.5 4.5 3.1
1999 17.5 11.6 19.6
2000 18.1 14.2 19.8
2001 13.7 10.3 15.1
2002 12.2 9.5 13.3
2003 14.8 17.1 13.8
2004 11.8 11.0 12.1
March 2005 11.9 10.1 12.6

Source: Federal Office of Statistics and National Bureau of Statistics Abuja, June 2005


*For 2011, the rate was reported to be 23.9%


Table 4: Graduate Unemployment Rate in Nigeria (2003-2009)

                                                Period Urban (%) Rural (%) Total (%)
2003 17.3 8.3 25.6
2004 25.2 12.8 38.0
2005 19.0 13.3 32.3
2006 18.8 13.4 32.2
2007 18.7 13.4 32.1
2008 15.8 21.7 37.5
2009 13.9 26.4 40.3

Source: International Labour Report (Nigeria), 2010


Jacky (2015) submitted ‘today’s youth are often referred to as tomorrow’s leaders and policy makers, however, the omitted fact is the process that youths need to take.  Not only do young people need to be critical thinkers, change makers and innovators, they also have to be leaders – occupy platform as vehicles to achieve the sustainable development goals.  A case study of Uganda refers.


There are many organizations led by young people in Uganda, and recently the country was considered one of the most entrepreneurial, with the youths championing this entrepreneurial cause through small and medium enterprises (SMIEs).  This is a challenge to other nations like Nigeria.





Study the 17 goals and appreciate the fact the key factors do much on the cause of the youth:


Table 5: Sustainable  Development Goals

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Goal 1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Goal 2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
Goal 3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Goal 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
Goal 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
Goal 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
Goal 8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all
Goal 9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation
Goal 10 Reduce inequality within and among countries
Goal 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Goal 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Goal 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Goal 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development
Goal 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss
Goal 16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal 17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development


Let us critically look into sub Goal 8b that states:  ‘By 2020, sustainability reduces the proportion of youth not in employment, education and training’.  Goal 8b notes ‘By 2020, develop and operationalise the global jobs part of the International Labour Organisation’.


All these sub Goals are aimed at young people and should be spearheaded and taken on by youthsFor this to happen, young people also need to have a united and therefore stronger voice, so that local and national institutions could better serve them with more robust and youth-friendly policies.


It is remarkable that there is no youth representation on the national budget committee, just like the cause of the disabled is not equally represented in Nigeria.  These are some of the barriers that need to be overcome.







There are 1.8billion young people between the ages of 10 and 24years old.  Partnering with young people to design the SDGs is necessary to ensure meaningfulness and effectiveness which are imperative because the goals affect their future.


Governance is addressed within Goal 16 which calls for peaceful and inclusive societies for a sustainable development, access to justice, and effective and accountable institutions at all levels.  The focus is on the target around accountable, transparent, participatory and responsive decision making processes.


Young people must therefore address the SDG through Goal 8 and 16 with active participation through viable National Youth Council.  This is to ensure the SDGs support youth-friendly decision-making, policy development and implementation.  Target 5.3 equally focuses on the need to end child marriage.  The youth must not sit back unconcerned and let change happen.  Change happens with them.  Everything is possible if the youth is well sensitized with the will to let it happen, then everything in the SDGs is possible in favour of new ideas, for today’s thinking and proactive thinking for future development.  Youth active participation to let the SDGs functional is highly possible.


Rise and Act now!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


REFERENCE young people in sustainable development goals sdgs


Olagoke (2015) National Transformation For Sustainable Development: A Management Challenge, Paper presented at Nigerian Institute of management *(Chartered) Distinguished Lecture, November, Ilaro, Ogun State




By Engr. Prof. S.A. Olagoke, JP


Chief Lecturer/Research Professor, Organisation of Economists & Business Analysts of Nigeria

COREN Engineering Regulation Monitoring Inspector, Ogun-Lagos Zones

Frmr Head, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro

Frmr Dean, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro

Fellow, Nigerian Association of Technologists in Engineering

Chairman Senate in Africa, Bradley University, USA

Baaroyin Radio Nigeria

Ajagun Esin (Religion Warlord)

Commander of the Order of Melchizedek (COM)

Patron, National Youth Council of Nigeria (Oyo State Chapter)

Executive Director, Centre for Religious Cooperation and Tolerance (CRCT)

Distinguished Fellow, Department of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan

Patron, National Association of Nigerian Football Coaches (Oyo State Chapter)

Founder, Spiritual Head & Chief Imam, Shafaudeen In Islam Worldwide



Nigerians became apprehensive of the possibility the 2015 election not to talk of having a change of baton in a civilian to civilian transition.  The hope became dicey in an environment of uncertainty and political panorama of:


  • Formation of a mega opposition through the amalgam of ego conscious parties with seemingly different agenda and dissimilar interests as opposition – the birth of APC
  • the monstrous power threat of the ruling power that was out to perpetuate herself in power for 60years without minding and reckoning with the hostile boring situations of timocracy, kleptocracy, corruption, and the reign of impunity that agonized the masses, dehumanized with government infested insurgence and violence of Boko Haram (NE), Niger Delta militia (SS) and MASSOB (SE).
  • the rulling party resorted to using powerful religious houses most especially those into millions of followers buying the leaders over with tax payers money to the tunes of multi billions as well as seeking support with high profile money laundering technique abroad! They sponsored campaign of calumny on the opposition turning patriotism into diabolical loyalty.


The above scenario led to the opposition campaign of change mantra which spread like harmattan fire due to the fed up fatigue of poverty and frustration of the people.  The masses and pockets of Nigerian patriots accepted the change mantra slogan which latter turned into the Buddhist and Hindus way of relating to their Creator.  Clamour for change became a sacred utterance or a sacred verbal formular repeated in prayer, meditation or incantation such as invocation of a god by a traditionalist.  To the Christians and Muslim it became a prayer point and focus, which was answered to a reality!


  • Elections took place after all – the date for the election was to take place in February 14 but postponed
  • March 28, Presidential and NAAS with result declaration on Wednesday, April 2, 2015
  • Governorship and House of Assembly, April 11 with winners declared on April 12


Nigerians periscope into the future with mini-max or point inflection rays of hope on the change need.  The results favoured the Change Mantra despite  the billions that went into hands with the following allegations yet to be denied $2.1billion with Dasuki Gate:


  • Iyodauna Ayu – N345million
  • Chief Tony Anenih – N260m
  • Chief Dokpesi – N2.1 billion for media propagation on AIT/Ray Power
  • Accord Party for Jonathan Presidency – N100 million
  • Dahiru $5 million and a host of others
  • Acacia Holdings N1.45 billion for special prayer
  • Reliance Referral Hospital – N750 million


The implication of the above range as follows:

  • Money meant to buy arms and ammunitions were diverted for personal use of the ruling party
  • Unending hardships for the people and the nation
  • Blood of the dead through insurgent attacks, road accidents and Internally Displaced People (IDP) due to Boko Haram in perpetual travail!


The party lost the Presidency shaming most Nigeria soothsayers with bounties of ill gotten bribes and loot.  They all know themselves.  They would have mortgaged the conscience of the nation into perpetual rule of terror, slavery and impoverishment.



Nigeria so far has been plunged into a stigma of:

  • Ruler boss rather than servant leader
  • Hegemonic and corrupt leadership
  • Elites of questionable characters domination
  • Inequalities, Timocracy, Kleptocracy and poverty in the midst of plenty due to mismanagement of resources and misrule
  • Low Human Development Index – most people living under $1 per day
  • Most corrupt, dastardly ritual life for power lust and wealth acquisition
  • We consume and import rather than producing to export even up to tooth pick. We are a nation that cannot satisfy our home need
  • Dysfunctional infrastructures incapacitated us into inability to generate employment for our youths
  • Globalization, internet surfing and the Media have not only exposed our leaders and the so called bigwigs, timber and caliber but challenged into clamour for change mantra


Now we are already into 7-8 months of the change, the questions to b e answered are:

  • What are we to change?
  • Who are we to change?
  • When and how are we to have and feel the impact of the change?


Surely there a high need for attitudinal change of all Nigerians, high and low as well as standing by having zero tolerance to corruption.  We must shun impunity but enhance high productivity index, proficiency and efficiency with sanctity of purpose, transparency, accountability, integrity, innovation, good governance to build a virile nation.



Our situation report became worse in 2009 and since then things have not been well with us as a nation:

  1. Managing Setback
  • 800 collapsed industries in Nigeria and over 37 factories closed in 2009
  • Half of the remaining operating firms are ‘ailing’
  • Affected areas are:
  • 176 firms from the North (Kano, Kaduna axis)
  • 178 companies closed shops in the South East (Anambra, Enugu, Imo and Abia states)
  • 46 companies in the South-South shut down operations (Rivers, Cross Rivers, Akwa Ibom)
  • 225 companies in the South West (Oyo, Osun, Ogun, Ondo, Ekiti, Kogi, Kwara)
  • 214 manufacturing firms went down in Lagos (Ikeja, Apapa, Ikorodu, others)

Most companies relocated in the neighbouring countries like Ghana, South Africa etc.  The implication of the above is that Nigeria became investor hostile business environment hence the blow out of unemployment saga affecting every home and the youth.  74 million of them claimed to be in the labour market as challenges of change mantra.


  1. Unemployment Problem Challenge

Let us consider the following:


  • i). National Unemployment Rates in Nigeria


            Table 1: National Unemployment rates:

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
31.1 13.4 12.6 14.8 13.4 11.9 13.7 14.6 14.9 19.7 19.7 23.9 23.9 23.9 23.9 24

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2009: 238’ 2010 (2)


Note that there is no consistent unemployment rates in Nigeria, it fluctuates but with rising profile.  This is a challenge for the change.





Table 2: Unemployment By Age Group

Age Group Urban Youth 20-24 15-19 15-24
Rate (%) 40 31 33

Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010:3




  • ii). Poverty Indices


Poverty Trends In Nigeria


Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2010)

Figure 1: Poverty indices in Nigeria


















Poverty Indices by Sector or Classes

15 – 24 years 41%
24 – 44 years 17%
Primary education 14.8%
Secondary education 23.8%
Post secondary education 21.3%
No formal school 21.90%
Below Primary 22.3%
Male 17%
Female 23.3%

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2010:3)


  • iii). Fall Out of Poor Governance and Low Human Development Index

The fall out reflects in hard time for people, unemployment, social menace, corruption, impunity and various crisis, kleptocracy, poverty and diseases etc.  Lt us use the consequential effect as a manifestation of persons admitted into prisons by age group mostly the expected working class in the labour market struggling to make ends meet:


Classification Age Group 04 05 06 07 08  
1 15-20 31,700 40,170 19,122 16,236 25,317 Unimaginable increase as a result of corruption, indiscipline, militancy, terrorism act, insurgence etc.
2 21-25 39,045 34,600 28,705 57,736 28,049
3 25-50 63,100 65,140 75,491 80,134 73,071
Total 126,445

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2009:248)


The implication on the above figures shows that the Nigerian political environment is not safe with large number of the youths into anti-social and criminal activities largely as a result of unemployment and lack of control in government.  This has the potential to destabilize and truncate democratic process in Nigeria.


There is a general rising profile of unemployment till today as a challenge to our change mantra or measure of the success rate of government in this direction. One can now imagine the aggravated number of youth into crimes with the youth population of 80 million (60% of total population) with 74 million unemployed and 1.6 million under-employed (2011 –          ).  The general trend of lack of infrastructural facilities will ever make rural life unpleasant and unattractive as they are neglected in the allocation of social and economic opportunities.  Youth migration to urban centres will equally be met with disappointment because of non functionality of infrastructures and inadequacy of amenities and jobs.  What a great task for government on the need to overhaul and improve with remarkable measure of real change felt by the people!







Orientation of Nigerians must change to:

  • Better work attitude with affinity for homemade goods
  • Money circulation for wealth creation through job creation for people
  • Rural integration with basic amenities and recreation facilities and urbanization for industrialization through western productive techniques and western tastes with western skills and scientific spirit to move away from weak economy and massive unemployment
  • Nigerian government must be prudent in spending, away from being most expensive civilian government as exemplified in the allegations of:
  • 195 Senators to spend 4.7 billion naira on new cars and 400 million naira worth of fleet of cars for the President being rejected.
  • What of more than 12 fleet of jets in a nation where various state governments find it difficult to pay N18,000= per month minimum wage



It is the duties of every government to ensure that the benefits of development programmes also reach the physically challenged.  Measures to this effect should be incorporated into the general planning process and administrative structure of every society.











Figure 2: Hexagon of operationalising inclusive society


  • International Community (IC) – United Nations on various programmes, human rights charters, International instruments for national and community domestication, grants through world bodies for programme and project implementation with critical monitoring.
  • Government
  • Signing of, and adoption of International tools
  • Domesticating international tool for a better environment conducive for development
  • Running a good government that takes with seriousness provision of basic amenities and funding capital projects for functional infrastructures and distribution of the dividend of democracy to all including the vulnerable
  • Prevent accidents not to increase the People With Disabilities (PWDs)_ fold as well as funding their cause through organised policy backed programmes.



  • Civil Societies/NGOs
  • Teaching and fighting for people’s rights
  • Embark on programme for people’s welfare
  • Challenge government on constitutional respect on their responsibilities to the people on welfare, security, education, infrastructure etc.
  • People Living with Disabilities (PWDs)

Form Self Advocacy Movement on the needs to:

  • Respect their fundamental Human Rights and
  • Promote inclusive society, on the access to basic amenities and
  • Be right empowered and be part of decision making in nation building most especially as it concerns them
  • Remove stigmatization in the society
  • create a data bank to have reliable demography of the PWDs
  • Provide programme template on Need Assessment
  • Agents of Socialisation
  • Pursue the cause of the PWDs through prevention, rehabilitation and equalization of opportunities in the environment of high respect for people’s human rights.
  • The Stakeholders – Religion houses, Home, School, Voluntary organisation etc. must focus on leadership training essence as well as character reformation to promote civility, discipline, employment, education and ventures for employment. Reach to out all including the marginalized, vulnerable and PWDs
  • Media
  • Make sacrosanct promotion of inclusive societies
  • Broadcast activities that focus on safety professionalism, peace, security and human rights issues to inform and educate all
  • Broadcast on the cause of the PWDs, HIV/AIDS and victims
  • Address and sensitise the public on matters of safety, health and security
  • Challenge, advise and admonish government through the editorials, and critique the society through features and people’s parliament
  • Promote peace and discourage violence and war


Much as corruption may fight back, the President must be weary of the opposition as well as the fifth column in the party not be stabbed in the back due to moribund ambition for power and the —————– of the tiny island of corrupt elites in and outside his party and around him.  Be steadfast in just worship to be a clear over-comer.

  • The Vulnerable in Gender Issue

Economically, more than 70% of women who toil to keep the name, children, have low access to funds.  Women participation in politics and governance is equally too low, and far below the 30-35% Affirmative Action of 1995 Beijing CEDAW Treaty to which Nigeria is a signatory.






The 2015 election results confirms this as analysed by Gender in the attached tables below


Position Percentage Percentage
Presidential 0 0
Senatorial 6/109 5.5
House of Reps 15/360 4.16
Governorship 0 0
State Assemblies 43/990 4.3


Table 1: Women’s Political Participation 1999-2011



1999 2003 2007 2011
No. of Seats No. of Women % No. of Seats No. of Women % No. of Seats No. of Women % No. of Seats No. of Women %
Presidency 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0
Senate 109 3 2.75 109 4 3.66 109 9 7.33 109 7 6.42
House of Reps 360 12 3.33 360 23 6.38 360 26 7.22 360 19 5.28
Governorship 36 0 0 36 0 0 36 0 0 36 0 0
Deputy Governorship 36 1 2.77 36 2 5.55 36 6 16.66 36 3 8.33
36 States Houses of Ass. 990 12 1.21 990 38 3.83 990 54 5.45 990 62 6.26
State House of Ass. Comm. Chairperson 829 18 2.2 881 32 3.6 887 52 5.9 887 N/A N/A
LG Chairpersons 710 13 1.8 774 15 1.9 740 27 3.6 740 N/A N/A
Councillors 6368 69 1.1 6368 267 4.2 6368 235 3.7 6368 N/A N/A
  9440 100 1.05 9556 381 3.98 9528 4.08 4.28 1533* 98 6.39

Source: Beijing+20 Country Report, 2014


  1. Socio-economic and Political Space, Power and Voice of Women in Nigeria: A patriarchal Feature



Source: Review of the Status of women in Nigeria

Figure 2: Women Level of Involvement in socio-Economic and Political Voice in Nigeria


Figure 3: Percentage Participation of women in NIREC and National Conference


Women needs to be encouraged at home, in the party while the society needs to be sensitized on the need to encourage and support women to be acceptable representatives of the voice of the people at decision making level.  Even at state by state level, the result is not in favour of women.  However, Government is credited for appointing considered credible women to sensitive position of power and service – Ministerial and others.


Table: Analysis of the Senatorial Election Results By Party and Gender

S/n Party Male Female Total % Female
1 APC 58 2 60 3.3
2 PDP 45 4 49 8.16
103 6 109

Source: 2015 INEC Election Report


Table: Analysis of the House of Representative Election Results By Party and Gender

S/n Party Male Female Total % Female
1 APC 206 5 211 2.4
2 PDP 132 10 142 7.4
3 APGA 4 0 4 0
4 SDP 1 0 1 0
5 LP 1 0 1 0
6 ACCORD 1 0 1 0
345 15 360 4.16

Source: 2015 INEC Election Report


Table: Analysis of the State of Assembly Election Results By Party and Gender

S/n Party Male Female Total % Female
1 ACCORD 10 0 10 0
2 APC 543 15 558 2.7
3 APGA 39 2 41 4.9
4 LP 9 1 10 10
5 PDM 1 0 1 0
6 PDP 342 23 365 6.3
7 PPA 0 1 1 100
8 SDP 3 1 4 25
947 43 990 4.3

Source: 2015 INEC Election Report



There is high need for positive change to be abreast of modern trend in development for a better living condition of the people.  How do we equally stop the following against women?

  • Violence against women
  • Armed conflict effect on women
  • Marginalization of women on the economy
  • Unequal access to and education and training of women and girls
  • Sharing of power and decision making at all levels between women and men in Nigeria
  • the plight of the girl child
  • Health challenge of women


  • Avoid policy rigidity but promote fiscal discipline by not running expensive
  • Only good governance can promote inclisive society
  • Uphold Sustainable Development Goals that will reach out to the vulnerable including the women, the youth and the People Living with Disabilities.
  • Adopt and implement the Sustainable Development Goals wholesomely and allow the vulnerable to have representation at the decision making levels for inclusive contribution as they affect their class or sector.


            Table 6: Sustainable Development Goals

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Goal 1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Goal 2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
Goal 3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Goal 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
Goal 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
Goal 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
Goal 8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all
Goal 9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation
Goal 10 Reduce inequality within and among countries
Goal 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Goal 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Goal 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Goal 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development
Goal 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss
Goal 16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal 17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development


With the poor implementation of the MDG Agenda prerequisite, Nigeria will need to double up efforts to realize the 17 Points Agenda of the SDGs having performed poorly in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000 – 2015). Olagoke Model on good governance for inclusive society below refers:

  1. Positive Mindset
  2. Mill House Theory
  3. Higher Hierarchy of Needs for selfless service
  4. Applied Models on Socio-economic and political revival


Embrace the following models to advance the cause of classical administration and management for high productivity, good governance and disciplined or decent society with peaceful co-existence and accelerated development:




  1. Positive mindset













Figure 2: Positive Mindset

Behavioural objective: must bring about positive thinking, patriotism, will power, empowering drive and motivation.


This must be inculcated into our cultural psyche through the National Orientation Agency (NOA), the Media and into the curriculum of our educational system and by authors of books and teachers alike for impartation under pedagogy as subjects or courses.  Emerging leaders must possess these attributes of learning outcome as well as having focus to serve as appropriate through credible leadership.


  1. Mill House Theory
















Figure 3: Mill House Model


This must be a re-orientation model to operate the Schools and our houses of God for peoples’ socio-spiritual development and our educational system to produce assessable and evaluative knowledge and spiritual rejuvenation of learners and adherents.  Products of schools and faith-based houses of God must go into positions of responsibilities to serve in a chosen or aspired capacity to develop the nation.  Application of taught lessons by intuition is desired here.  The involvement of Godly and good people in politics is highly demanded.


  1. Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Olagoke Advanced

Hierarchy of Needs

Attributes Outcomes

Need Assessment and Application Vector

Self Fulfillment

This is fundamental to human growth and development:

·      Right child rearing

·      Nature nurturing to adolescent stage

·      Right schooling profile

·      Right choice career

·      Employment opportunities

·      High capacity building as remedy for top management level


Capacity Base Line













Figure 4: Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow and Olagoke


The Olagoke Advanced hierarchy of Needs is meant for right capacity base for productive service, assertive authority, disciplined life of elder statesmen or role model for legacy driven administration and management into good governance and productive service.  The Maslow Hierarchy of Need Apex of self realization is the foundation.














Figure 2: Strategic Imperatives in Promoting Productivity and Development


To promote each unit or system, government and companies inclusive, requirement for well trained personnel on skill competence driven by ICT is paramount.  Such people must be reliable, disciplined with high focus and service based on Olagoke Advanced Hierarchy of Needs (OAHN) that opines Maslow Hierarchy of Needs actualization as foundation to further human maturation needs.



It is essential to identify causes of insurgence, terrorism and uprising with a view to preventing, mitigating and resolving conflicts, at home, society and in government, to be able to create conducive atmosphere or environment for political stability and development.  Three parameters are germane for consideration – Politics, Socio-Economic and Religion:


  • All nations must realise that
  • Nigeria international policies foreign agenda most of the time aims to split regions apart and to make the people permanently dependent as experienced in the aftermath of the Arab Springs and some African nations. Be wary of IMF interventions too
  • There is need to build strong intelligence service to abort these tactics
  • Developing sense of citizenship and belonging for the upcoming generations by avoiding political disputes and rivalries
  • Just as relationship between Arab and Islamic countries to face any plan to divide the region is crucial, it is equally important for Nigeria to be united within


  • Economic Consideration
  • Searching for new economic coalitions to face the domination of the big economic powers
  • Reforming economic legislations that could management the money flow, resisting corruption and devote financial transparency
  • Upholding the fight of smuggling, counterfeiting, human trafficking, drug abuse
  • Work on low level of schooling and early school dropout


  • Social Consideration
  • Fostering culture of moderation, prudence, social justice
  • Addressing unemployment
  • Pushing towards positive discrimination between regions
  • work on communication between the security apparatus and the civil society organisations to achieve peace and development


  • Religiously,
  • Enhancing the skills as capabilities of religious leaders, the Imams and Pastors in particular to promote peace and culture of development and good citizenship
  • Training the theologians for more moderation and tolerance
  • Reforming the religious scientific institutions and saying ‘no’ to religious extremism and cynicism
  • Reform of educational programmes
  • Work on wrong understanding of the moderate religious practice against the backdrop of the culture and traditions of the people


  • What to Avoid
  • Extremism, terrorism and insurgence, thus creating enabling environment for political stability
  • Development of the following must be avoided.


  • absence of dialogue within the family – lack of cohesion
  • the increase or growth of poverty and marginalisation in economic, religious and cultural affairs
  • lack of political will to develop marginalized areas and to put in place religious, cultural and educational reform, and for Sustainable Development Goals to have psychological and social support for upcoming generations


  • the international conflicts and the attempts to dominate the conflict zones by dividing countries
  • no ideological goal of political parties, faulty election conduct, and result manipulation, misrule, pushing people to hardship to hardship


  • the big economic powers orientation to explore other geographic areas markets for medicines and arms trafficking by pushing towards conflicts and wars: USA, in Arab countries, Russia in Ukraine, IMF in developing nations
  • lack of equity: poverty in the midst of plenty, and kleptocracy among the rising elites


  • unemployment, poverty, marginalization, illiteracy, addiction and family problems


  • at international level, Middle East in particular, problem of fixing for political running Islam and Democracy without losing the fundamental substance of Islam
  • at home in Nigeria, commercialization of religion and attendant indoctrination of members and instigation of adherents against the society, parents and against other religions and the society at times.



Government must motivate right for the grassroots, the youth for:

  • Innovation recognizing excellence and inspiring future generation through awards, scholarships and competition to put Nigeria on a practical platform of producing innovators. This will equally provide intellectual leadership beneficial to government making right decisions and implementing worthy programmes and projects
  • Government must venture into capacity building of the resource materials in the Ministry, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) to be able to serve better the government
  • Government must promote the cultural core values of virtues and integrity, hard work and patriotism and reward role models for the youth to emulate on sustainable development of the nation to be rightly developed
  • Government must strengthen the internal mechanism to institutionalize discipline, have zero tolerance to corruption and enforce standard and regulatory control for quality assurance through such agencies as EFCC, ICPC, ACTU, SERVICOM, NDLEA, SON, NAFDAC, FRSC etc.
  • Ensure:
  • electricity is available before increasing the tariff most especially at domestic front
  • refineries are put to full capacity utilisation before removing the subsidy on the Premium spirit price
  • respect the Divine Demand as it affects:
  • Government (Q57 vs. 4)
    • time frame for project and programmes
    • accountability in government and MDAs etc.
    • transparency in transaction and governance
    • sustainable development need
  • the Governed (Q4 vs. 59, Rom 13 vs. 1-3):
    • keep peace and obey the authority who must work with fear of God to sustain peace and development
  • the Civil Societies (Q47 vs. 35, Mathew 5 vs. 9)
    • sensitise and fight for people’s rights without getting distressed for you have the mandate of God
  • Nigeria must embrace regional integration with other sister nation on the issue of security and development. For this to be feasibly favourable, we must improve on governance
  • Government must identify strategic opportunites in education expertise and in successful capital projects peculiar to other nations of the world – Research and Development, Infrastructures etc.
  • 80% of the National Budget goes into engineering based projects most of which are foreign dependent. In the spirit of local content law, Government must re-invent into engineering education to meet up with our home need requirement on infrastructural development and maintenance, managing technological risks and challenging engineering/other professional community
  • Government must vigorously and aggressively spur into business and social entrepreneurship to solve effectively problem of unemployment and industrialization
  • Government must search and hunt for, and harness expertise in Diaspora. Most Nigerians abroad consult or work as experts in various fields of human endeavour
  • Nigerians an oil exporting nation imports refined petroleum products for its local use so that oil confraternity can be richer than the nation.  After many years of dysfunctionality of our refineries, we are at best now producing 17% of our local need.  Thanks to the Treasury Singly Account that is imposing multiple accounts in a corporation or government treasury – LG, State of Federal – 45 for petroleum industry but for dubious purpose!



The whole scenario reflects leadership failure for apart from generation failure, we fail to maintain what we have, for example, vandalisation of oil pipelines etc.  There is therefore a high need for general reorientation of Nigerians on work attitude, integrity and patriotism starting from:

  • Party formation with clear cut ideological goal
  • Type of people to be fielded to campaign for election
  • Total Quality Assurance of the candidates and the party
  • integrity reports and personal disposition of fielding candidates for election
  • Capacity building through nations relevant faculties of our universities or tertiary institutions as retreat centres
  • Political will to deliver dividend of democracy of emerging election winners
  • Ensure all corrupt officials and politicians are banned for minimum of ten (10) years from holding public offices
  • Nigeria under change mantra must change from leadership failure to leadership drive to avoid perpetual state of consumerism, policy somersault and failed state syndrome. For example, Nigeria has the highest rate for latest cars but we are the worst in vehicle production with annual turnout of 1,175 units annually (Daily Sun, September 28, 2015).  A comparative analysis of vehicle production by Nigeria with other nations presents us as under-developed and unserious!



S/n Country Capacity Turnout Annually
1 Nigeria 1,175
2 China 22 million
3 India 3.8 million
4 Mexico 3.3 million
5 Brazil 3.2 million
6 Russia 1.8 million
7 South Africa 1,566,00


Government needs to boost th rating through implementation of the Nigeria Automotive Industrial Development Plan (NAIDP) for drastic improvement in the production and purchase to improve employment generation.  Let us make a target on how best to satisfy home need through local production of goods, generally in order to improve on our exporting index and depend less on importation.



The class of the vulnerable in Nigeria is the youth, victims of insurgence as Internally Displaced People, Women as the voiceless and marginalized as well as People Living with Disabilities. Only good governance and promotion of inclusive society can address effectively these groups alongside the generality of the people who deserve to be served and rewarded with dividend of democracy.  Youth unemployment, unpaid salary of workers and the pensioners are a time bomb in Nigeria that must not be allowed to explode.  It is a threat to Nigeria’s democracy.


Against this background, there is a dire need by governments at all levels and other stakeholders to embark on massive job creation to create a state of hope and peace needful for foreign investment as well as for the viability of economic diversification, prioritizing the forty-six (460 sectors of revenue generation most especially the feasible ones with high economic potential.


Much as we are all stakeholders on the issue of security, we are equally crucial to actualizing change mantra on institutionalization of discipline from the state of impunity as well as zero tolerance to corruption by uprooting Timocracy and operating corruption free judiciary, patriotic legislature and legacy driven service executive on the provision of basic amenities and functional infrastructures for the nation to move forward.


A change mantra for inclusive society is a measurable philosophy through the parametric indicators of realisable sustainable development. During this change mantra, Nigerian workers must be able to have access to shelter (homes, food and clothing as fundamental to their comfort and immediate future generation.




































INEC (2015): 2015 General Elections Report, pp 209-211


Beijing +20 (2015): Review of the Status of Women in Nigeria. J4 A DFID & Justice for All


Olagoke, S.A. (2015):  Nigeria Democracy and Issues of Sustainable Development.  SAO Publications, Nigeria


Juma C. (2006):  Redesigning African Economies. The Role of Engineering in International Development, pp. 13-25


UN Women (2015): National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions in Nigeria


Okafor, E.E. (2011): Youth Unemployment And Implications for Stability of Democracy in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. B. No. 1, 2011.  ISSN 1520-5509








Impoverished Nigerians Besiege Senator’s Empowerment Programme In Search of Handouts


Hundreds of jobless, hunger and poverty stricken, able and disabled  Nigerians, on Wednesday stormed the Obafemi Awolowo stadium, Ibadan, Nigeria  venue of  an empowerment programme, full of hopes to get a lifeline for their impoverished status.

The programme with the theme ”Teach How To Fish” was organized by the Senator Rilwan Adesoji Akanbi Foundation, an initiative of the Senator representing Oyo South Senatorial District in the Senate.

According to the organizers,” the programme is also aimed at making life more meaningful and purposeful for the beneficiaries, considering the economic reality of modern time in the country”.

Although a laudable initiative, the sight of Nigerians begging for alms at the venue, made dignitaries in attendance put up worried looks.

The fortunate Nigerians, who benefited from the programme were not up to a fraction of those who displayed signs of want.

A sizable number of people, left the venue at the end of the programme pondering over where the next meal would come from, as the organizers did not serve food and drinks at the event.

A cross section of those at the venue called on the Federal Government to  take urgent measures to address the economic hardships that have trailed its policies, as a step towards rekindling the hopes of the citizenry in a government that is sensitive, accountable and responsive to the people.