Philippine Police Killing Spree Demands Accountability

Hundreds Dead in “Anti-Drug Operations” Since July 1

Phelim Kine

Deputy Director, Asia Division

The Philippine National Police (PNP) confirmed today at a Senate hearing on extrajudicial killings the shocking human toll inflicted by the police in the “war on drugs” launched by President Rodrigo Duterte after taking office seven weeks ago.

PNP Director-General Ronald Dela Rosa speaks at a Senate hearing investigating drug-related killings in metro Manila, Philippines on August 22, 2016.

Police statistics show that from July 1 to August 19, 2016, police have killed an estimated 712 suspected “drug pushers and users.” That death toll constitutes a more-than-tenfold jump over the 68 such police killings recorded between January 1 and June 15, a period of over five months.

PNP Director-General Ronald dela Rosa was unconcerned by the sharp rise, characterizing the killings as proof of an “uncompromising” police approach to drug crimes. Dela Rosa added that police personnel implicated in unjustified killings of criminal suspects “will be investigated, prosecuted, and accordingly punished,” but made it clear that he will not proactively examine those deaths.

Last month dela Rosa slammed calls for an investigation as “legal harassment,” saying it “dampens the morale” of police officers. Meanwhile, the country’s top prosecutor, Solicitor-General Jose Calida, defended the legality of police killings and suggested that the number of such deaths was “not enough.”

Police statistics attribute an additional 1,072 killings of alleged drug dealers and drug users to unknown vigilantes since July 1. Dela Rosa stated that he did not “condone” extrajudicial killings, but he made no indication that those deaths – more than 20 killings a day between July 1 and August 19 – merited urgent investigation.

These killings suggest Duterte’s aggressive rhetoric advocating violent, extrajudicial solutions to criminality in the Philippines has found a receptive audience. Last month he exhorted Filipinos who knew of any drug addicts to “go ahead and kill them yourself as getting their parents to do it would be too painful.” This prompted the United Nations Special Rapporteur on summary executions, Agnes Callamard, to accuse Duterte last week of effectively granting the police and others “a license to kill.”

Duterte is steamrolling the rule of law and its advocates both at home and abroad. He has declared the soaring number of killings of alleged criminal suspects as proof of the “success” of his anti-drug campaign and urged police to “seize the momentum.” He has sought to intimidate domestic critics of that campaign and dismissed international critics as “stupid.” Other countries, including the United States and European Union members, should make it clear to Duterte that inciting such violence is unacceptable and will reap potentially severe diplomatic and economic costs, beyond the human one.

Otherwise, it’s hard to envision when these killings will end.

Source : Human Rights Watch


Govt. Should Review Pensions Upwards-Nigerian Pensioners


The Federal Government has been called upon to review upwardly, the monthly allowances of Pensioners in Nigeria.

This call was made by the Chairman of the Nigeria Union of Pensioners(NUP), Pure Federal, Oyo state chapter, Alhaji Kola Adenle, on behalf of Nigerian pensioners.

”There is very much left to be desired. We only take stipends. What we are receiving cannot take us home. I think that  there should be a review of our pensions. Pensions should be reviewed every 5 years and/or when salaries of workers are reviewed. And none of this has been done. It is better said than done”.

”The ambition of every pensioner is for the Federal Government to act fast, we don’t want to be hearing news of it would be paid, let it be paid right now. Pensioners don’t have money to buy drugs and people are ageing day in, day out. We want government to take the welfare of the senior citizens as very paramount in their scheme of things. This would alleviate the suffering of the pensioners and reduce mortality among the aged. There are several pensioners whose names have been removed from the pay roll for 5, 6  and 7 years without  any just cause and they are still alive”, Alhaji Adenle lamented.



By Engr. Prof. S.A. Olagoke, JP

Theme: Clerics and Community Security


The vision of God (Allah, Yahweh, Jehovah, Chukwu, Olodumare etc.) in establishing religion is to inform and reform mankind (adherents) for enhanced improved quality of life through scriptures for reproof, correction and instruction into righteousness which educational institutions cannot offer on knowledge because wisdom sources its strength from God, to be thoroughly furnished into all good works[1].


Religious institutions today fail to achieve these with their products not better than the infidels they are charged to correct and improve!  This is because Clerics teach the theory without demonstration; condemn others with air of discrimination without being role model forgetting that example is better than precept[2].  The mission statement therefore crumbles for lack of back up with practical follow up:[3]


  • Be united as purposeful pressure group on goodness with ethical guides for a sanitized system and environment free of fraud with outstanding reward of success from God


Human failure to keep up to the above vision and mission have over the ages till date resulted into nations and empires crumbling, poor governance and under-development resulting into various degrees of insecurity.  Human systems are fraught with virus of corruption and indiscriminate state of indiscipline, for example, in Nigeria government and MDAs are constituted through human wisdom of education but the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God for the wise are taken in their craftiness because their thoughts are in vain[4].


Resuscitating religion activism and functionality in practical sense is therefore the theme of this workshop – Clerics and Community Security as relevant and veritable tool to curb future lapses on the part of government to forestall break down of laws and order and maintain very low degree of insecurity (entropy).



The first challenge government and religious leaders must address is creation of effective data bank local government, state and federal levels.  Departments of Statistics are very relevant here:


  • How many Christians/Muslims/Other faith based religions exist in Nigeria with dates of establishment and other demographic data?
  • What are the guiding principles for the establishment of sects, denomination etc?
  • What are the population profiles of each of them at every level of government geographical contraption?
  • What are their vision and mission and how relevant are they to government objectives and the scriptures they claim to uphold?
  • What is the level of compliance to societal norms and the scripture of the religion they claim to represent?


It is remarkable to note that government and religious bodies have a lot of things in common in term of administration, management and security: the very type and class of people with their sociological and psychological challenges that go to places of work – private, public and civil are the very people that go to different places of worship.  Ironically most of them are far from meeting with their President, Governors etc. but they are very close to Clerics most especially those who minister into them in their houses of God.  The same set of people go to the same markets to shop for their living where capitalising on the above, there is a dire need for government to work naturally with Clerics without deepening religious colouration.



The following case studies from the Pew Reseach Center for the people and the press and Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life undertake a collaboration to survey Americans on their views toward religion, politics and public policy refers:


  • What should have more influence on US laws?
  • What American are hearing in Church
  • What should be the more important influence on US laws?
  • Houses of workshops and politics
  • A variety of issues addressed from the pulpit (and how well)


Table 1: What should have more influence on US laws?

The will of the American people (%) The Bible






Total 63 32 5 = 100
White Evangelical 34 60 6 = 100
White Mainline 78 16 6 = 100
Catholic 72 23 5 = 100
Secular 91 7 2 = 100
*Question:  Which should be the more important influence on the laws of the United States?  Should it be the Bible or should it be the will of the American people, even when it conflicts with the Bible


Table 2: What American are hearing in Church

Does your clergy ever speak out on …*  (%)
Hunger and poverty 92
Abortion 59
Situation in Iraq 53
Laws regarding homosexuals 52
Environment 48
Evolution/intelligent design 40
Death penalty 31
Stem cell research 24
Immigration 21
*Based on those who attend religious services at least monthly


Table 3: What should be the more important influence on US laws?

The Bible


The will of the American people (%) DK


Total 32 63 5 = 100
Men 29 67 4 = 100
Women 37 58 5 = 100
White 30 65 5 = 100
Black 50 48 2 = 100
18-29 22 74 4 = 100
30-49 33 62 5 = 100
50-64 32 63 5 = 100
65+ 44 50 6 = 100
College graduate 20 75 5 = 100
Some college 30 66 4 = 100
HS graduate 38 58 4 = 100
Less than HS 46 47 7 = 100
Conservative republican 49 45 6 = 100
Mod/Lib Republican 29 63 8 = 100
Independent 25 71 4 = 100
Conserv/Mod Democrat 36 60 4 = 100
Liberal Democrat 19 77 4 = 100
Total Protestant 44 51 5 = 100
White evangelical 60 34 6 = 100
White mainline 16 78 6 = 100
Black Protestant 53 44 3 = 100
Total Catholic 23 72 5 = 100
White, non-hispanic 21 75 4 = 100
Secular 7 91 2 = 100
Religious attendance
Weekly or more 52 43 5 = 100
Monthly or less 25 70 5 = 100
Seldom or never 12 84 4 = 100
Biblical literalism
Take Bible literally 65 31 4 = 100
Word of God, not literal 20 75 5 = 100
Not word of God 3 95 2 = 100


Table 4: Houses of workshops and politics

Should houses of worship express views on politics? Keep Out


Express Views (%) DK


Total 46 51 3 = 100
July 2005 44 51 5 = 100
March 2001 43 51 6 = 100
June 1996 43 54 3 = 100
February 1968* 53 40 7 = 100
March 1957* 44 48 8 = 100
White 47 50 3 = 100
Black 35 62 3 = 100
18-29 43 54 3 = 100
30-49 42 56 2 = 100
50-64 49 48 3 = 100
65+ 52 44 3 = 100
Conservative republican 34 65 1 = 100
Mod/Lib Republican 49 48 3 = 100
Independent 48 49 3 = 100
Conserv/Mod Democrat 45 52 3 = 100
Liberal Democrat 59 38 3 = 100
East 53 44 3 = 100
Midwest 46 52 2 = 100
South 41 56 3 = 100
West 46 49 5 = 100
Total Protestant 39 58 3 = 100
White evangelical 34 63 3 = 100
White mainline 52 44 4 = 100
Black Protestant 29 68 3 = 100
Total Catholic 52 45 3 = 100
White, non-hispanic 54 44 2 = 100
Secular 59 36 5 = 100
*1957 and 1968 figures from Gallup


Table 5: A variety of issues addressed from the pulpit (and how well)

Religious Affiliation
 Does your clergy ever speak out on … Total White Evangelical White Mainline Black Protestant Catholic
Hunger and poverty 92 90 91 91 96
Abortion 59 62 37 58 75
Situation in Iraq 53 54 50 65 51
Laws regarding homosexuals 52 54 35 62 50
Environment 48 45 42 60 45
Evolution/intelligent design 40 48 37 45 27
Death penalty 31 26 19 41 41
Stem cell research 24 21 11 18 38
Immigration 21 16 12 24 31
Based on those who attend religious services at least monthly



  • Response is based on the level of understanding of the scripture and achievement level of vision and mission of religion.
  • Table 1: people’s will is high. May not be favourable if the will is anti-scriptural
  • Table 2: contemporary issues is low due to cleric knowledge and scripture in our case it must address issues
  • Table 3: religion must address issues as it concerns their life, clerics must equally be socially relevant in preparing the congregation or public life and working for aid with government to achieve sanity
  • Table 4: theo-democracy is applied religious lessons by intuition to enhance natural social life style without divine default. House of worships should only objectively express views on political issues to moderate government activities
  • Table 5: house of worship must not be theoretically rhetorical but should also inform and educate congregation and the public on contemporary issues


Generally there is a dire need to re-orientate the activities of the houses of worship to be relevant in social upkeep of the people and government.



2007 to date.  Nine (9) years of struggles to correct the wrongs due to infiltration, exfiltration, incursion, inclusion that have changed the face of governance, social economic and environment into an hybrid of heterogeneous materials and dendrite ———————- materials at the expense of unity, brotherhood, homogeneity and natural ecological design of God for mankind.  The AECF is not happy about the situation in Nigeria in particular and the world in general:

  • Iraq, Somalia, Turkey, Syria, Burundi, Kenya etc. records of upheaval
  • Indiscipline, injustice, corruption, hunger, poverty, kleptocracy in Nigeria
  • High toll of destruction of properties and humans – kidnapping, terrorism, insurgence, militancy, internally displaced people etc.
  • Mirage of good governance and development, credible leadership, trust, transparency, patriotism etc.

The AECF is therefore a united front of Muslims, Christians, Media practitioners and other professionals on the issue of non-bias face ad phase of ethical practices that are out to unite people for a well ordered society for the sustainability of workable unity in diversity.



Experience of Boko Haram as an example of wickedness against humanity considering how government officials trade with fellow human lives:

  • More than two thousand innocent souls displaced with 65% of them orphaned with dim hope of returning home of nightmare. Imagine the absence of schools utilities etc. for basic human comfort?
  • Sharing of the $2.1bn meant for the purchase of fire arms to quench the menace of Boko Haram insurgence by defence custodians!
  • To the North East, South-south, and even Shiite Muslims area of Kaduna and Kano, security is now more meaningful than ever. Integrating over this to spread security consciousness to the rest of the country, for permanent peace broker, the workshop will now look into how best to achieve peace and security culture for all Nigerians through government – house of worship (clerics) work relation:
  • Determination of right leadership skills and status for cleric (Pastor and Imams) on issue of human relation to most especially on issues of community security.[5] To this effect, a Personality Trait Test is administered.


  • Your type, nature, weakness and areas of strength must be determined
  • Leadership training must be followed[6]
  • Can you then after assess yourself as being fit to manage for government community peace and security?
  • Leadership building
    • Assess yourself on management issue against the backdrop of the following verses of the scripture:
  • Q4 vs. 59, Rome 13 vs. 1-3 – followership and leadership essence
  • Q4 vs. 64, Ezekiel 33 vs. 1-6 – responsibility of leaders in management
  • Q3 vs. 159 – classical management theory: prime movers, ———————–, system destroyers



Model 1:                                                  Model 2:                                          Model 3:

Social responsibility
Spiritual responsibility

of leaders

Forgiveness Essence
Mistake, Confession
Figure 2: Responsibility of Leaders
· Administration

· Warnings

· Information

· Instruction

Management Attitude
Prime Mover
Management Attitude
Management Training
Apply as appropriate to the indentified



Rules of law

The people
Figure 1: Followership and Leadership sence


  • Government-Cleric relation on issue of security

Let us establish the relevance of houses of worship in keeping the peace and security of the community[7]

Data bank
Police station
House of Worship










  • Cleric as chief security stakeholder of his immediate stakeholder must keep surveillance on his members of congregation and neighbourhood
  • Government (LG) must create a databank of the existing houses of God that will lead to effective planning for future establishment of religious houses to be environment friendly
  • The Police-house of God relation allow for ease of transformation transfer
  • The remuneration for motivation by government for service continuity
  • The questionnaire below is to guide us into the working mechanism for feasibility


The questionnaire


Part A –For Cleric

  • Is it easy to combine personal work with community service on security effectively?
  • Are you being remunerated by your church or mosque and in what ways?
  • If the government is to intervene in the remuneration, how much of a token would you appreciate?
  • Do you realize your credibility is equally at stake on this kind of service to your community?
  • How would you feel working for your community through the Police?


Part B

  • Do you find it necessary for religious sect or denomination to register with government through the local government?
  • How much of a token do you feel the LG should give to remunerate each cleric on community security service?
  • How would you monitor the effectiveness and sincerity of cleric on this matter to justify the remuneration for motivation?
  • How important is community security service to you as government officials?
  • Would you want this sensitization programme to continue and to spread across all 774 local governments in Nigeria?









Issues of security must be a concern of every Nigeria.  There is need for government to recognize houses of worships in every community as relevant organ of keeping the peace and community security.  There is equally a need to create harmonious working relation among the three sensitive organs of the society – government, cleric, Police (security agents).


Remuneration is mostly ……………………….. should be a token of recognition of service and must be justified through keeping the peace and ensuring community peace.  There is a need for precise demographic data of all religious bodies and houses of worship for ease of monitoring of religious and people’s activities in the community, society, state and the nation at large for ensured security.


Under a good democratic setting, people must be carried along with the policy and programmes of government before implementations through sensitization, opinion poll and/or referendum tools of decision making as it affects their lives and the state.




Andrew, K. Luis, L. (2006): America Views on Religion, Politics, and Public Policy. Pew Research Centre for the People and the Press, Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.


Olagoke, S.A, (2016):  Change Mantra for Inclusive Society. Shafaudeen Annual

Workshop, January 23, 2016, Ibadan.
































Personality Type Code




  1. Direction of Focus/Source of Energy

E – Extraversion (Lively)

  1. Sociable
  2. Happy around others
  3. Know many people
  4. Speak before thinking
  5. Interest in different things


  1. Ways of Taking Information

S – Sensing (Logic)

  1. Rely on 5 senses
  2. Very ware of the here and now
  3. Detail oriented
  4. Tend to be specific
  5. Like to use established skills


  1. Decision Making Style

T – Thinking

  1. Logical – reasonable
  2. Business-like – Formal
  3. Question until satisfied-probing
  4. Straight forward frank
  5. Motivated by accomplishment – achievement


  1. Organisation Style

J – Judging

  1. Feel stress until work is done
  2. Work first, play later
  3. Complete things
  4. Want to be right
  5. Do things as they come


  1. I – Introversion (Calm)
  2. Reserved – unwilling to show feelings
  3. Energized by thoughts – deep thinker
  4. Have a few close friends
  5. Think before speaking
  6. Expert about area of interest


  1. N – Nutrition (Instinct)
  2. Rely on their 6th sense – sensitive
  3. Future oriented
  4. See possibilities
  5. Tend to be general – optimistic
  6. Like to learn new skills


  1. F – Feeling
  2. Make decisions based on value – principles
  3. Naturally friendly
  4. Likely to agree
  5. Tactful – diplomatic
  6. Motivated by appreciation – approval



  1. P- Perceiving
  2. Open minded
  3. Enjoy now, finish job later
  4. Start new things
  5. Want to miss nothing
  6. Likes pilling work

[1] Q2 vs. 185, II Timothy 3 vs. 16-17

[2] Q61s. 1-4

[3] Q3 vs. 104

[4] 1st Corinthians 3 vs. 19-20

[5] Hadith, Proverb 27 vs. 23


[7] Q37 vs. 1-3

Zimbabwe Police Forcibly Disperse Rioters in Harare

00351603 d1f34524a9bdc349158692847620572f arc614x376 w285 us1

Police have fired tear gas at a crowd of opposition supporters amid an outbreak of violence in Harare. Clashes have broken out all over the city.

Zimbabwean police on Friday used tear gas and water cannon to break up a protest against President Robert Mugabe that was authorized by court order, triggering violent clashes throughout the capital, Harare.

Opposition supporters who wanted to march to the offices of the electoral commission to deliver a petition calling for electoral reforms ahead of 2018 elections were told to leave by police. When some refused to comply, the officers violently broke up the crowd, which included opposition head Morgan Tsvangirai and former Vice President Joice Mujuru. Tsvangirai and Mujuru fled the rally in cars.

The dispersed protesters then fought running battles with police in the streets of Harare, burning tires, throwing rocks and burning a popular market to the ground. Several people were reported injured in what was some of the worst unrest in the country since food riots in 1998.

Police spokeswoman Charity Charamba accused protesters of looting shops, saying a number of arrests had been made.

Growing unrest

Zimbabwe has seen months of protests against alleged human rights abuses, a weakening economy and high unemployment under the 92-year-old Mugabe, who has held power since 1980 when the south African country obtained its independence from Britain.

Government critics want international observers, including the United Nations, to monitor the poll in 2018. They are also calling on Mugabe to dismiss corrupt ministers, scrap plans to introduce local bank notes and end cash shortages.

Home Affairs Minister Ignatius Chombo on Thursday accused opposition leaders of being “foreign agents” who were trying to bring about international intervention in Zimbabwe’s affairs.

Source : DW

Aid Is Key to Reform Local Forces on Rights, Leahy Says

Sara Egozi
Restricting U.S. Assistance Aims for Rehabilitation, Not Punishment

The goal of a law that for two decades has barred U.S. aid to security forces that violate human rights is to rehabilitate culpable units, not just punish them, the statute’s author, Senator Patrick Leahy, told an audience at USIP this week. The senator and administration officials who also spoke highlighted a new interagency policy that promotes reform by restoring assistance to partner governments once they have held perpetrators accountable and moved to guard against future abuse.

“Frankly, this should have been happening a long time ago,” Leahy told about 200 representatives of government as well as non-profit groups, international organizations, academia and research institutions. Participants included officials from the Departments of State, Defense and Justice and the U.S. Agency for International Development. “Civilian and military officials at foreign posts should regularly discuss with their partners when and why units have been deemed ineligible for U.S. aid through the vetting process, and what steps the foreign government can and should take to remediate.”

The focus on remediation has intensified as U.S. security strategy moves to greater reliance on local partnerships to counter violent extremism and other threats. By insisting that local security forces respect human rights and demand accountability for violations, the U.S. is strengthening them, Leahy said. Accountability and conduct that complies with the rule of law is, in turn, crucial to those local partners getting the cooperation they need from local populations, he said.

The workshop event, co-hosted by the State Department and USIP, marked a step forward in how the U.S. partners with foreign governments and militaries to achieve the vision of the “Leahy Law,” as the 1990s-era provisions are known. The Feb. 11 discussion followed up on a related workshop almost a year ago that more broadly addressed how to employ U.S. security aid to promote accountability and prevention in connection with human rights violations.

The remediation policy, developed by an interagency committee a year ago, encourages U.S. officials stationed at embassies and combatant commands to engage in “Leahy Law Diplomacy.” That means helping governments refashion corrupt and abusive military and police units to end impunity so they can again receive U.S. assistance. In a series of panels, civilian and military officials, as well as non-profit and academic leaders, explored best practices in accountability, redressing human rights violations, and facilitating effective security partnerships.

Tom Malinowski, the State Department’s top human rights official, said remediation is fundamental to fulfilling the Leahy Law’s original intent of demanding accountability and avoiding U.S. complicity in human rights abuses.

By creating a path to restore assistance where governments make credible efforts at reform, remediation strengthens partnerships with foreign governments and helps build the capacity of security forces.

“This is the whole point of the Leahy Law,” said Malinowski, the assistant secretary of state for democracy, human rights and labor. “It’s not to punish bad behavior for the sake of punishment, but to induce change.”

Leahy, Malinowski and Rebecca Chavez, deputy assistant secretary of defense for western hemisphere affairs, cited the success of remediation practices in countries including Afghanistan and Mexico. The number of abuse allegations filed with the Mexican National Human Rights Commission dropped by more than 50 percent over the past three years, Chavez said.

The accountability required by Leahy’s legislation is increasingly central to building trust between the U.S. and partner governments, as well as the local support necessary for effective security force operations, the officials said. As the U.S. leans more heavily on foreign militaries to resolve global crises, the Leahy Law, and the push for respect of human rights, will stay at the forefront of security priorities, they said.

Remarks of Senator Patrick Leahy

Thank you Nancy and Tom, and thanks to the U.S. Institute of Peace and the Department of State for hosting this discussion.

I also want to recognize USIP for the important and active role it is playing in efforts to prevent and resolve conflicts overseas.

There is really no other U.S. government entity that can bring together the Departments of State and Defense, USAID, and other Federal agencies, as well as nongovernmental organizations, to develop, coordinate, and implement strategies to prevent and resolve conflict.

This workshop is just one example of this.

I also want to publicly thank Laurie Schultz Heim, who is retiring after nine years as the congressional liaison for USIP.  I’ve known Laurie for a long time, when she was a top staff member for former Senator Jim Jeffords.  There is no question that – like countless Vermonters – this organization is better off thanks to Laurie.

I want to begin with two examples, which I picked at random, of what brings us here today–

In two weeks the Foreign Minister of Sri Lanka will visit Washington.  In fact, he plans to speak here at the U.S. Institute of Peace.

Those of you who follow events in Sri Lanka know that in the war between the government and the LTTE, and particularly in the final months of that war, tens of thousands of civilians sheltering in camps and hospitals died from shelling by the Sri Lankan army.  In addition, many of those suspected of being members of the LTTE were rounded up by Sri Lankan soldiers and killed.

The Sri Lankan Government is now faced with the question of how to respond to demands by the United Nations, the Sri Lankan people, and many governments including the United States, to punish those responsible for such crimes.

My second example is Nigeria, where Boko Haram is committing horrific atrocities against the local population.  The Nigerian military has mobilized against Boko Haram, but it has also been accused of raping and murdering civilians, in some instances reportedly shooting hundreds of innocent people.

Both Sri Lanka and Nigeria are friends of the United States.  Both have new governments that we support.  We provide hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to Nigeria, and tens of millions of dollars in aid to Sri Lanka.

When I first wrote the Leahy Law 20 years ago I had these types of examples in mind, although back then my focus was on Central America.

As we have seen, Central America was not an aberration.  Impunity for crimes by foreign security forces – even some UN peacekeeping troops – remains a widespread problem.

The Leahy Law is designed to help prevent U.S. complicity in human rights abuses by foreign security forces, and encourage accountability when they occur.

Consider the alternative:  providing training and weapons funded by American taxpayers to foreign security forces who commit heinous crimes, even though their governments are doing nothing about it.

The challenge is how to apply the law to achieve what to some may appear to be competing or even incompatible national interests, but which I believe to be complementary.

It is a crime when Boko Haram commits rape and murder, but not when it is done by the Nigerian army?

It was a crime when the Tamil Tigers recruited child soldiers and used suicide bombers, but not when the Sri Lankan army targeted civilians and executed prisoners?

Of course is was.  And if we fail to recognize this we embolden those who would make a mockery of the principle that no one is above the law, and we do a grave disservice to the people of those countries.

When we partner with foreign security forces we automatically become involved in the internal affairs of those countries.  The way those forces act and are perceived by their own people reflects – positively, or negatively – on us.

When our partners, trained or equipped by us, commit abuses, we become complicit – or we are perceived to be complicit – in the predatory and abusive acts that erode the legitimacy of those forces.

I think most people understand this.

The Leahy Law makes clear that the United States will not tolerate or support foreign partners who violate the personal integrity, dignity, or due process of their citizens.  People who order, commit, or cover up such crimes should be prosecuted and punished.

The law also makes clear that those who use torture or shoot prisoners for reasons of political expediency, or because justice systems are slow or inefficient, will not receive U.S. support.

That is what the law requires when a foreign government rejects the need for accountability.

But that is not the outcome we want.  We want to help build professional, disciplined, transparent, and accountable security forces who are suitable partners for the United States.

We can do that not by treating them as if they are above the law – as we unfortunately sometimes have done – but by providing an incentive to answer to the law.

Many of these units may seem brazen and capable in the short term, and it is understandable to want to partner with them.  But we need military partners that are both capable and legitimate – who respect the rule of law, defend the rights of citizens, and build stability in their countries.

That is why the Leahy Law is not in conflict with the strategic, security focus on “building partner capacity” – whether in Nigeria, Sri Lanka, or anywhere else.  To the contrary – the law represents a convergence of universal values and national security interests.

As a former prosecutor, I understand the importance of accountability.  If our partners want to stop extrajudicial killings, torture, rape, and forced disappearances, they need to send a clear signal that perpetrators will be held accountable.

We know that often requires significant reforms of judicial procedures and institutions.  And we know that building the capacity of civilian and military justice systems takes time.

We are not prescribing how accountability should be administered in every case, nor do we have unrealistic expectations for countries where the rule of law barely exists today.  We are looking for the political will to stop impunity, provide the right incentives, and send a positive signal to the citizens of those countries.

Disciplinary procedures and credible justice systems distinguish professional soldiers and police from criminals.

Accountability builds the public trust and support that security forces need to respond effectively to terrorism and other violent crimes.

That is why the Leahy Law puts so much emphasis on remediation.  We want to stress that U.S. officials – civilian and military – in Washington, at our embassies, and at the combatant commands, should look for opportunities to assist their foreign partners in remediating units of security forces that have violated human rights.

Frankly, this should have been happening a long time ago, because the Leahy Law has always provided for the restoration of U.S. aid if governments act to clean up abusive units.  The law explicitly requires the Secretary of State to assist governments that take such steps.

Yet, for many years the law was treated as a pie-in-the-sky idea the Congress wanted that should be ignored, rather than risk upsetting the sensitivities of foreign governments.

The law requires active diplomacy – “Leahy Law diplomacy.”  Civilian and military officials at foreign posts should regularly discuss with their partners when and why units have been deemed ineligible for U.S. aid through the vetting process, and what steps the foreign government can and should take to remediate.

I am encouraged that one year after the new remediation policy was developed by an interagency committee, there have been several cases where remediation has worked and there are other cases in the pipeline.

I hope we see more of this.  And I think we will, because the goal of the law is to improve conduct.

This workshop is an opportunity to discuss how our programs to help reform corrupt and abusive military, police, and judicial institutions – whether conducted by the Pentagon, the State Department, Justice Department, or USAID – are improving accountability.

  • Are these programs working, and if not why not?
  • Where have we seen progress in strengthening respect for the rule of law?  Where are perpetrators of human rights abuses being punished?
  • What tools can we offer to assist partner governments with investigations and prosecutions of specific cases of human rights abuses?
  • Are we seeing results from the Pentagon’s human rights training, or is it wishful thinking if abuses continue to be tolerated by high ranking military officers who may have been promoted despite – or even because of – their own criminal history?
  • Can we make progress in a country like Egypt, one of the largest recipients of U.S. military aid, whose government is persecuting civic activists and journalists and ignoring abuses by its security forces?
  • Is there a correlation between corruption – a pervasive problem in many developing countries – and human rights abuses that deserves greater scrutiny?

I look forward to hearing what comes out of today’s discussion.

I am also encouraged that, despite the occasional naysayer who wants to waive the Leahy Law or make exceptions when the facts do not support it, more and more people recognize that the law is less about making accusations than about defending human rights and building lasting partnerships we can be proud of.

They recognize that the alternative is indefensible – supporting abusive security forces that violate domestic and international law and whose governments tolerate or even encourage it.

That is not acceptable to the United States and it should not be acceptable to our partners.

Thank you Nancy, Tom and all of you for helping make the Leahy Law what it needs to be.

Source : USIP

What Took Medellin’s Top American Pimp So Long to Get Caught?

Daniel Bates


 Prostitution is legal in Pablo Escobar’s old hometown, but pimping is not—and according to police Colombia Jake was pimping little girls.

American tourists visiting Medellín knew him as “Colombia Jake,” the friendly local American guide who made sure they had a good time. He could fix them up with an apartment, rent them a motorbike, or arrange for them a “Pablo Escobar tour,” visiting the grave and some of the houses of the infamous drug lord who, for better or worse, put that lovely old Colombian city on the map in the 1980s as a capital of cartel depravity.

Medellín has changed since then, but as a local newspaper columnist lamented recently, there lingers “a mafia culture, defying the law and common sense” amid “absurd inequality, where the few opportunities that many people (many women, in this case) may have are to denigrate themselves in front of those who abuse them, those who take advantage of their bodies to satisfy their morbid curiosity.”

It’s a city where, as The Daily Beast reported in May, girls as young as 10 are recruited by the remnants of the cartels, and their virginity sold to the highest bidding sex tourist.

So it’s the kind of place a pimp can make a good living, and according to the Colombian National Police, who arrested him in July and charged him with abusing a girl younger than 14, Colombia Jake fit right in.

The wonder of it is that Jake, a 53-year-old former high school baseball star from Florida whose real name is Jay Harry Drivas, wasn’t nabbed long before. Even by the low standards of “escort service” advertising, his cobbled-together websites—including—were crude, crass, and to the point.

When Drivas was arrested in Medellín, after what police claimed was a months-long investigation, they said they found $10,600 in cash, as well as cocaine and ecstasy, at his three-bedroom property. They found an inflatable tub there as well (which figures in some of his publicity pictures), and they found a 13-year-old girl (some reports say 12), who is now with social services.

Prostitution by women over 18 years of age is legal in Medellín, but pimping is not, and pimping minors definitely is not. Drivas now faces up to 20 years in a Colombian prison. If, as local police suspect, he used prostitutes to sell drugs to clients, that could push his jail time higher still.

The “Colombia Jake” homepage and related sites will be presented in court as evidence, and they’ve already been plastered all over the Colombian press.

Gen. William René Salamanca, director of the Specialized Protection and Services branch of the National Police told the Bogotá daily El Tiempo that the web pages were key to the arrest. But they finally made the case using an undercover officer who spoke good English. Those who spoke Spanish got nowhere.

“The supposed client asked for the services of an underage girl, and the North American [Drivas] agreed,” El Tiempo reported.

The most easily accessible Jake websites show photographs of women in bikinis sitting by an inflatable pool, and a topless woman giving a naked man a massage. Others feature a grinning Drivas in a hot tub with his arms around two women.

There’s also a YouTube testimonial illustrated with more girls and the voice of someone called “Dr. Bruce,” who claims he’s the kind of guy who goes to Super Bowls and has seen a lot of action in a lot of places. “Nobody is killin’ it like you are,” says the voiceover of anonymous Dr. Bruce.

“I’m here to help make sure you have the Best Vacation of your Life!” Jake boasts in blue type with a lot of capital letters: “That’s why guys come here to Enjoy the Beautiful Women, Suites and Tours, but most guys end up lonely at night because finding a fun reliable Girlfriend Experience Date in a short period of time is very difficult. I know lots of Beautiful Girls with Personality, to go have fun with!”


A testimonial on, a website linked to, praised his “rent-a-date” service:

“While he can set you up for a quick bang in the room (just like at a casa or club), what was the highlight for me was the Rent-a-date. On two different nights (with two different girls), they’d arrive just outside the hotel in a taxi, I’d hop in and we’d go to a party district… You really feel like a man—The Man—when a hot paisa is all over you and laugh and kiss you in public. After a couple of hours of this, back to the hotel room for about an hour of private time.”
Colombia Jake

Another Jake-linked photo site is more explicit still: “What you can’t have in the USA!” it boasts. “These fun semipro/student girlfriends want to Drink, Dance and come back to my Hotel or another Hotel for Luv! Contact me today!… The Hot Girlfriend Dates are extra usually between you and her from $50 to $95 dollars and from 1 to 6 hours of fun and action! I have a lot of others even Hotter, who don’t want to be pictured!”

Brazen as this pitch may be, such a site could be said to edge inside Colombian law, given that prostitution by adult women acting on their own is legal. Which is why the charges brought against Drivas are based on what police described as his parallel operation, because there were two: one used the blatant websites and the services of some 200 women, “the other, more low-key, included the services of underage girls,” according to Gen. Salamanca’s interview with El Tiempo.

Clients came from American cities as diverse as Cheyenne, Wyoming; Lincoln, Nebraska; Dallas, Texas; and Atlanta, Georgia, according to Salamanca. He told El Tiempo that U.S. law enforcement is now tracking down some of those gringos who exploited minors.

So, who is Colombia Jake/Jay Drivas? He seems to have started out as a more or less all-American boy. Reportedly born in Massachusetts, he spent most of his life in Florida around Orlando, and was on the baseball team at Lake Howell High School in Winter Park.

He studied business at Florida State University and was on the Lambda Chi Alpha Florida State Baseball Team, as well, before taking various jobs with medical systems companies. He was divorced in 2001, after having two children.

Drivas’s dark side appears to have been with him for some time and, according to Pinellas County Court records, in the mid-1990s he was jailed for a year and three months for attempted sexual battery and six months for battery.

Court documents obtained by The Daily Beast from the Pinellas County sheriff’s office show that the attempted sexual battery for which he was imprisoned occurred in September 1994 and was investigated as an attempted rape.

The victim, whose name was redacted, told investigators that Drivas had hired her to work at a brokerage firm and on her first day they were driving around doing some errands when they stopped off at his apartment to talk about her new position.

The police report says: “As she exited the restroom, she was met by Jay in the hallway, who put his arms around her and attempted to kiss her. The victim immediately pushed him away and said: ‘This is not right.”’

In a copy of the sheriff department’s interview with the victim, obtained by The Daily Beast, the victim said Drivas tried to persuade her to kiss him by saying, “People in the office always fall in love.” As he kept pressing himself on her she said, “This is wrong.” To which he replied, according to the interview, “I’m your boss and I think it’s right.”

Drivas was “grabbing her chest,” and she pushed him off again, the police report says. Then he pushed her into the bedroom and onto the bed where he unzipped her top and kept trying to unzip her skirt. The victim fought him off again and told him to take her back to work, which, finally, he did.

Additional charges against Drivas relating to earlier allegations of attempted sexual battery, kidnapping, and aggravated assault are in the county court records.

A female victim alleged that she was out jogging on the street near her apartment when somebody “came out of the bushes and grabbed her.” She said a man she identified as Drivas was “telling her to shut up as she was screaming for her life.” He allegedly put her in a choke hold, forced her to the ground, and demanded money. When she said she didn’t have any he began to tie her hands up, but her screams attracted the attention of a passerby and Drivas is said to have fled.

The heavier charges from that case were not pursued, according to the court records. They show Drivas pled no contest to a lesser charge of battery and was placed on probation.

A man who knew Drivas well when he was living in Florida, but who asked not to be identified, said that he left for Colombia six years ago in order to avoid paying child support for his two children, now aged 18 and 20. The Colombian police have reported that he settled in Medellín seven years ago.

The same man, who knows the family, said that Drivas has had limited contact with his children since then, apart from sending them messages trying to get them to visit him in Colombia, something their mother refused to let them do because of his lifestyle.

“Jay wanted to live the way he wanted to live and he felt he was living a better life than anybody else,” said his acquaintance. “He’s one of these guys who wants things for free. He has no moral compass at all… He thought had the best life anyone could have. Now he has the worst life imaginable.”

According to locals in Medellín who spoke to The Daily Beast, Drivas arrived there at a time when there were relatively few foreigners in the city.

Colombia Jake


James Lindzey, a lawyer and businessman based in Medellín, said that Drivas started off renting out apartments and motorcycles, but appears to have become involved in prostitution at some point afterward.

He said that he knew Drivas as an acquaintance in the expat community, which was small back then, and recalled him as a tall, athletic man who would hang out in the sports bars.

Lindzey said that around two years ago Drivas came up to him in a bar and started screaming at him because he would not help him promote his business on the website for his law firm.

Lindzey had heard rumors he was involved in prostitution and had turned him down because of them, he said. “He seemed like he had a screw loose. He was furious.”

In some ways Drivas is lucky to be alive.

In June, gangsters murdered their third foreigner in two weeks in Medellín and homicides are up 80 percent as rival drug cartels, the figurative heirs of Escobar, wage war on each other.

In Lindzey’s opinion, anyone involved in the prostitution business would have come onto the radar of the drug lords, who might have them killed for stealing their women or encroaching on their turf.

Like many other residents and natives of Medellín, Lindzey is concerned that the Colombia Jake story will harm relations between expats and tourists and the local community. Medellín has become one of the most popular places in Colombia for foreign visitors, not least because of its year-round warm weather: “Where Spring is Eternal,” as conventional tourist literature puts it.

There is a growing tech sector, a booming medical tourism industry, and rising numbers of Americans are retiring there thanks to the cheaper cost of living.

But the sex tourism industry is an undeniable draw, too, and the authorities have long looked the other way. What seems to have sparked the crackdown are the recent homicides.

Police recently tried to clear out the area around Parque Lleras, which is popular with tourists and is where many drug dealers and prostitutes hang out. When that didn’t work— the crowds just moved to another park— the authorities began to target pimps, which is when Drivas got caught.

According to the news site El Colombiano, he has tried to kill himself twice since his arrest, including trying to jump from the 17th floor of one of the court buildings.

Drivas is currently being held in the Penitentiary La Paz (Itagüí), a grim, maximum-security prison that is so overcrowded that it has an occupancy of 966 people but only enough beds for 328.

Col. Paulo César Cruz Delgadillo, the chief of the criminal investigation unit for children and adolescents at the Colombian National Police, told the website Vivir En El Poblado that they had “done their part” as far as Drivas was concerned.

The arrest was reportedly coordinated with the U.S. Embassy in Colombia, but whether or not America seeks Drivas’s extradition is up to them, the colonel said. The Department of Justice and the Department of State declined to comment. Nobody from Immigration and Customs Enforcement was available for comment.

Several relatives of Drivas reached by The Daily Beast either did not return calls or hung up when reached on the phone. But not everyone was so reticent.

Kristin Proper, the mother of Drivas’s ex-wife, called Drivas a “scumbag” and said that she was “not surprised at all” by his arrest.

When told that he could be spending the rest of his life in jail, she said: “That would be lovely.”

Source : Daily Beast

BVN Challenge: We Have Not Received Salaries For Nine Months Some Oyo Workers


A sizable number of workers in Oyo state have raised the alarm over the non payment of their salaries for nine months.

These category of workers blame their plight on the controversy surrounnding the Bank Verification(BVN) process, instituted by the state government  to check its bloated wgae bill.

Although a negligble number of workers say that they have received their salaries for February,  majority of the workers  insist that the future of prompt payment of salaries in the state remains bleak.

In a chat with Federrationews2day, the Chairman, Medical and Health Workers Union(MHWUN) Pastor Ademola Babalola stated that those workers with BVN related issues were among those affected by the ongoing verification exercise by the state government.

Oyo state government says it does not wish to sack workers, it is only repositioning its workforce, thousands have been cleared in the ongoing exercise. No union can say it is buoyant now. Workers must be productive and efficient. But it would take the grace of God for the state Government to be able to pay the salary arrears of its workforce”, Pastor Babalola concluded.



By Professor Sabitu Olagoke


Education is the process of facilitating learning, knowledge, skills, values, beliefs where habits of a group of people are transferred to other people.  The process of transfer may involve storytelling, discussion, teaching, training or research.  It may be transferred through educators or self learning process called autodidactic learning.  It is an experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels or acts.  Human Development Index needs to pass through the phases of pre-school, primary school, secondary school and then College, University, apprenticeship through pedagogy or methodology of teaching.


  • Opportunity

Like every enterprise, (Kukoyi, 2015) observed academic institutions are concerned with the quality of their products.  The finished products in this instance are the students graduated.  At global level, Article 13 of the united Nations 1966 International Convention on Economic, Social or Cultural right, UNESCO recognized the right of every one to acquire education hence government is expected to make it compulsory to at least a minimum level of secondary schools – JSS 1 – 3, SSS 1 – 3 for people to be knowledgeable and civilized and for ease of governance.  A tool for removal of primitivity and envelopes of ignorance indeed!



Today education is received through either the conventional method, e-learning but whichever way it is now from Analog to Digital tool of communication or transfer as well as being ICT driven hence the funding must follow the UNESCO minimum recommendation of 26% of the National Budget allocation to education.  However, the pattern of education funding in Nigeria is yet to comply.  Table 1 below refers:


Table 1:  Funding Profile of Education by Government of Nigeria 1999-2013

Year Education Budget Total Budget % of Allocation
1999 2,700,000,000 60,549,835,647 4.46
2000 40,940,663,330 470,009,971,781 8.71
2001 63,783,776,900 894,214,805,186 7.13
2002 73,435,499,300 1,064,801,253,520 6.90
2003 75,707,827,520 976,254,543,375 7.75
2004 93,767,886,839 1,790,848,344,588 5.24
2005 147,835,527,799 1,799,938,243,138 8.21
2006 195,693,672,666 1,876,302,363,351 10.43
2007 221,071,774,929 2,266,394,423,477 9.75
2008 250,144,818,579 2,492,076,718,937 10.04
2009 252,204,813,495 2,870,510,042,679 8.79
2010 339,634,791,000 4,608,616,278,213 7.37
2011 393,810,171,775 4,266,191,559,259 9.32
2012 468,385,490,528 4,749,100,821,170 9.86
2013 509,039,713,761 4,987,220,425,601 10.21
Total 3,128,156,428,420 35,133,029,629,922 8.28


This allocation is referred to as the Nominal value (i.e. without the effect of inflation), the Real value is therefore computed using a Deflator for each year.


Source: Wale Micaiah (2013), htttp:// budgetary-allocation-to-education-sector?related=1

However, the facts and figures in table 1 are deceptive because their -corresponding percentages are still very low to promote functional education if we consider the low purchasing power of the Naira and other nations’ average percent allocation to education. Table 2 below refers:


Table 2: Average Percent Allocation to Education of Some Countries

Countries Nigeria Botswana Swaziland South Africa Lesotho Cote D’Ivore Burkina Faso  Ghana Uganda Tunisia Morocco
% Allocation to Education 8 30 24.6 25.8 17 30 16.8 30 27 17 17.7




Education has three domains that are expected to have direct impact on human culture, civilization and development.


  1. Affective – Reading, writing and identification ability characteristics of culture of primary school/secondary school learning that directly influence the behaviour and character building of the growing child at his impressionable age. Habits, permanent future character or personality trait of human is determined in this regime.


Reflection 1:

  1. If you are to be given a testimonial certificate today on moral standard measure in this school, how would you rate yourself with all sincerity?
  2. Check your personality trait against the attached leaflets of the book “Secure Your Future” written by I.A. Adediran. Check in addition (i) your result and make a comment on your areas of weakness and strength and (ii) state ten ways to be adopted to improve on your character and (iii) through which specific processes.
  3. As the teacher/parent in charge to assess the students.


  1. Cognitive Domain – this is knowledge acquisition that has a characteristic development profile from primary to Polytechnic and university. Professorial cap that is research based is the height of knowledge acquisition in any of the disciplines available in the world:




Reflection 2:

  1. Have you decided on the type of career you want to pursue?
  2. Have you engaged the professional guide of your counsellor?
  3. Assess your development profile against the standard set for education age attainment. This is a practical solution to child marriage problems.


How impactful has our education been to the society in view of this climate (impunity, corruption and indiscipline against the expected claim of –standard and civilization?  Our problem lies in Q2 vs. 269 and Isaiah 29 vs. 11-15.  Lack of gratitude and divine grace indeed!


  1. Psychomotor Domain

Note the academic/vocation/professional development structure of 6-3-3-4 or 9-3-4 basic education.  This is a knowledge based education with affinity for skill acquisition leading to application of science and products of Engineering and Technology – industry, infrastructures, basic amenities for sustainable development.  Note that the psychomotor domain dominates the target achievement of Polytechnic education that is more of practical content based bias in admission 70:30 in favour of Technology over Management and Curriculum 60:40 practical-theory ratio.


At every segment of our educational development, vocation for job opportunities abound and entrepreneurship for self employment and job generation is remarkable.  Professionalism forms the end product of all cadres of education level attainment.

















Figure 2: Career progression and Educational Opportunities for Students


Reflection 3

  1. Suggest ways of making the Psychomotor domain more effective to be impactful on the society for our education and professions to be effectively functionally felt by the (i.) nation, (ii.) rural areas, (iii.) self.
  2. Carefully matrix-mix the three domains and state the proportions that can be effective enough to produce:


  • Quality graduate
  • Complete personality that mould the society
  • An assumed standard education.



To fulfill Town and Gown philosophy that have right impact on the society, educational institutions must go into researches that will have direct bearings or impact on the society.  Research must be geared towards interventions that will address and direct the needs of the students and the society. The figure below refers.



Figure 1: Challenges of Town and Gown – Institution of knowledge



Development of Vocational Training for skill acquisition is to promote entrepreneurship education for the emergence of small and medium scale enterprises which is 98% foundational and feeder support to the industrialization feat of USA and China.  Graduate unemployment must be seriously addressed by Governments as shown in Table 3 below:


Table 3: Graduate Unemployment Rate in Nigeria (2003-2009)

                                                Period Urban (%) Rural (%) Total (%)
2003 17.3 8.3 25.6
2004 25.2 12.8 38.0
2005 19.0 13.3 32.3
2006 18.8 13.4 32.2
2007 18.7 13.4 32.1
2008 15.8 21.7 37.5
2009 13.9 26.4 40.3

Source: International Labour Report (Nigeria), 2010


Unemployment issue against graduate turnout must be taken with all seriousness in our education service delivery.  The problem we have in Nigeria is that of inadequate planning and faulty implementation.  The essence of statistical data and documentation is to help in proactive planning for right projection into the future:  be it birth rate, death rate, admission and graduate turnout for corresponding generation of employment opportunities for sustainable development goal to be met where today’s youth ability to develop on their own is not compromised must have been achieved through such statistical projection or forecasting.

Let us work on the implications of the table 4 below on the employability factor of turnout of graduates to avoid a state of emergency in the education system in Nigeria.


Table 4:  Percentage Distribution of Unemployed and Under-Employed by State and Gender, 2005

State Un-Employed Under-Employed
15-24 years 15 years & above 15+
Abia 8.0 7.9 7.9 6.3 5.0 8.4 11.4 5.9 8.4
Adamawa 10.0 6.1 8.1 6.8 4.7 5.9 15.8 12.9 14.5
Akwa Ibom 15.8 14.1 15.0 8.8 8.3 8.5 22.4 21.2 21.8
Anambra 16.6 22.6 19.8 5.1 6.9 6.0 33.6 27.8 30.6
Bauchi 9.0 4.6 7.1 5.4 4.7 5.1 30.0 19.3 26.1
Bayelsa 10.0 9.3 9.7 6.6 6.2 6.4 12.6 10.9 11.7
Benue 10.0 8.1 9.0 4.3 3.2 3.8 16.5 11.3 13.9
Borno 1.2 2.3 1.7 0.7 1.1 0.9 12.0 12.2 12.1
Cross River 6.2 3.9 5.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 15.2 9.0 12.0
Delta 6.0 5.8 5.9 6.8 5.8 6.3 16.1 16.4 16.2
Ebonyi 7.9 10.6 9.2 2.9 2.1 2.5 14.2 13.7 13.9
Edo 24.8 20.1 22.3 8.4 7.4 8.0 23.2 29.5 30.9
Ekiti 24.5 25.5 25.1 3.5 3.6 3.6 10.0 11.8 10.8
Enugu 37.5 26.5 31.8 10.5 8.8 9.6 32.6 24.8 28.5
Gombe 11.8 11.4 11.3 6.7 8.1 7.2 26.1 11.2 20.7
Imo 8.5 8.6 8.5 6.8 5.1 6.1 16.1 12.5 14.2
Jigawa 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.6 14.5 6.8 9.5
Kaduna 6.9 8.7 7.9 2.0 2.9 2.4 18.7 18.4 18.6
Kano 3.8 1.5 2.6 2.4 0.1 1.6 16.6 10.1 13.3
Katsina 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.1 1.9 2.0 9.3 4.4 6.7
Kebbi 8.2 2.7 6.0 3.3 1.1 2.3 23.9 9.5 17.6
Kogi 30.8 20.4 25.5 9.2 6.6 7.0 14.4 10.4 12.3
Kwara 2.9 3.6 3.3 3.1 4.4 3.7 10.3 7.8 9.0
Lagos 22.9 28.6 26.0 9.4 11.1 10.2 23.7 24.8 24.2
Nasarawa 28.1 25.2 26.6 11.6 14.4 12.8 23.1 11.5 18.2
Niger 3.8 3.2 3.5 1.6 1.3 1.5 10.8 6.4 8.8
Ogun 16.3 9.0 12.4 3.8 3.1 3.4 24.6 25.3 25.0
Ondo 22.1 13.4 17.3 4.2 3.0 3.5 16.5 14.3 15.3
Osun 18.4 10.7 13.8 2.9 1.5 2.1 17.0 13.0 14.8
Oyo 12.0 7.8 9.7 3.7 2.2 2.9 12.1 7.1 9.9
Plateau 14.1 6.8 10.3 3.5 3.2 3.4 19.0 9.9 15.3
Rivers 21.7 28.8 28.8 11.4 11.5 11.4 27.6 22.7 25.3
Sokoto 5.1 0.5 8.7 2.2 1.4 2.6 38.1 3.6 38.6
Taraba 7.2 5.5 6.3 2.9 2.6 2.8 16.5 16.2 16.4
Yobe 4.9 3.1 4.1 3.9 2.2 3.2 23.1 14.5 24.9
Zamfara 0.5 1.4 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 36.0 25.3 31.1
FCT 6.3 16.2 11.0 2.2 13.1 6.9 23.4 18.5 21.4

Source: 2006 NBS Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaires (CWIQ) Survey


  • Towards Effective Teaching: a Case Study of Comenius (Awake, 1999)


  1. Comenius is regarded as the grandfather of Modern Education. He was a native of Czech Republic born in may 28, 1592
  2. He was repulsed by the stereotyped teaching methods of his days where lessons were only taught in Latin and restricted to males and of noble birth


  1. He described the 17th century schools as ‘slaughter house of the mind’
  2. From 1630 he published books like ‘The Visible World’, an illustrated reading guide for children which stood as a milestone without a competitor for more than one hundred and fifteen years.
  3. Many of the illustrated books today follow the general format of Comenius work, moving illustrations teaching aids. He was hailed as a genius
  4. In 1654, he was invited to serve as the President of Harvard university, in Cambridge Massachusetts but turned down the offer for he was not seeking for fame or high office
  5. Comenius submitted that study should be entirely practical, entirely pleasurable and as such to make school a real game of Town of Gown synergy, for example, learning habits, students must realise that in higher institutions there is plenty of freedom in the academic environment:
  • Which seat to occupy in the classroom
  • Number of courses to select in a semester
  • Freedom to choose types and styles of dress to wear
  • Freedom to choose when to attend lectures


The abundant freedom can be mismanaged by a new entrant and from experience it has usually been abused to a costly price.  Be rightly guided and get used to information gathering and communication essence while in secondary schools for ease of application in the tertiary institution.



The 6-3-3-4 arrangement with corresponding assisted curricular follows the focus of Total Quality Assurance to process and produced an education line of quality and standard graduate with excellent performances.

However for reasons of facility update, problem, distractions and environment hazard, the graduates are either pack of dropouts, employable or unemployable.  This situation demands rectification because of its far reaching effect on the nation building goal of education.


The quality control part of the Total Quality Assurance is the setting of examinations and the results obtained will validate the integrity of the graduate based on his performances:


Table 5: Admission Process Line Into Tertiary Institutions

Examining Body Target Assessment Process Number Admitted Implication


1,752,000 nos. applied Apply for admission


Collect form and fill (online)






Post UTME (for the selected Institution



Chosen Institution





Class work (Field or Laboratory)

Tests (CA) + Exam



Assessment and Evaluation






Class of Grades

(BSc., B.Ed.), (ND, HND), (NCE)


% (0.297)


§ Capacity limitation


§ Minimum requirement credit passes in at least five subjects taken at not more than 2 sittings including Mathematics and English and related subjects to the chosen discipline (NUC, NBTE it is ‘4’ for Colleges of Education (NCE)


% (0.685)


Imagine the cumulative effects of this annual rejects:  social problem due to attendant frustration. This may negatively affect the society into social menace, crime and consequent overburden for parents.


National University Commission





National Board For Technical Education






National Commission for colleges of Education

Colleges of Education
















Certification →


Students need to avoid distractions to ensure good performances even at the first sitting.  Positively mindset on this, today.  Note the highly competitive nature of admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria.  Table 5 refers.


Table 6: Admission Statistics in the Federal Polytechnic Ilaro (2014) – School Engineering

Year Total Applicants Number Admitted % Admitted Remarks
2013/2014 25,000 2,600 10.4 Capacity limitation

School of Engineering

3,396 210 6.2


If any student is given admission, he/she must seriously guide and work for the best performance to justify the hard earned opportunity.



The stakeholders – Parents, Teachers, Government can promote effective teaching.  However, lack of good teachers has been identified as a factor responsible for high failure rate of students.  For teachers to be good, they must among other factors, possess requisite qualifications, and have passion for the work.  Government must ensure adequate funding and appropriate capacity building for the teachers with commensurate motivation and remuneration.


Parents must spend adequate time for meaningful contact and close monitoring and guide for their wards to minimize distractive actions and manage adolescent challenges of their growing children.  Teachers must avoid abusive or hate speech, lack of zeal and job dissatisfaction.




  • Conclusion

Under-funding is the bane of Nigeria education system.  Any education that does not have proactive impact on the society is a waste (Aregbesola, 2015).  Education must therefore be functional and impactful for it to be meaningful acquisition.  For this to be achieved environment for learning must be uniquely distinct; promote creativity and enhance thinking.  It must be facilitated by able teachers and facility update – public and private schools inclusive.


Posers to the Students:

  • How do you want to be remembered in the years to come? Go for brilliance.


Posers to the Teachers:

  • How do you want to be remembered? Go for passion and do your best in moulding the future of your pupils and students. Whatever we sow, we reap.


  • Recommendations

Government and proprietors must ensure:


  • Equal access (male and female) to education to eradicate illiteracy
  • Improve access to vocational training, science and technology and continuing education
  • Develop non-discriminative but functional education and training
  • Allocate sufficient resources for and monitor the implementation of education reforms
  • Promote lifelong education and training as an inclusive project for girls, women and disabled persons.











Awake (1999) Comenius – the Grandfather of Modern Education. April 8 Edition, pp.



Kukoyi, O.O. (2015): Students’ performance Examinations.  A Paper presented at

the School of engineering Retreat. April 14.


Olagoke, S.A. (2015): Nigeria Democracy


Olagoke, S.A. (2015):  National Policy On Education: Challenges Of Implementation

& Impact On The Society.  A Paper presented at the 2015 Opening Ceremony of the Olagoke Education Competition.  May 20.


Beijing +20 (2015):  Review of the Status of Women in Nigeria. Pg. 40

Oyo Govt’s Refusal To Pay Arrears of Pensions Insensitive and Wicked-NUP Vice President(South West)


The refusal  of the Oyo state Government to pay  the arrears of pensions owed pensioners in the state has been described as insenstive and wicked.

This assertion was made by the National Vice President(South West) of the Nigeria Union of Pensioners(NUP), Alahji Lateef Adegoke in a chat with Federationews2day.

”Government has refused to pay the arrears of pensioners, that was why pensioners embarked on a peaceful protest walk from the Ngiera Labour Congress secretariat  at Agodi agte on the 9th June, 2016, but were stopped by the Oyo state Commissioner of Police, Leye Oyebade, who appealed to us to opt for dialogue”.

However, since then, there has not been any positive result. For government not to be able to pay us our stipends, is wickedness. Government should pay workers and pensioners a minimum of four months arrears to cushion the effect of  economic hadrships we are experiencing”, Alhaji Adegoke concluded.

Don’t Allow A Cabal To Control President Buhari-Oyo Gov. To APC South West Leaders


Oyo state Governor, Senator Abiola Ajimobi has called on the leadership of the All Progressives Congress(APC) in the South West to consistently present suggestions and position papers to President Muhammadu Buhari, to ensure that the President was not controlled  by a cabal.

The Oyo state Governor made this call in his remarks last week Thursday, at the APC South West conference, held at the Premier Hotel, Ibadan, Nigeria.

”Our President is one of the most patriotic, committd and corruption free President. The guy is the best of our time. Are we tellling him everybody is afraid, afraid of what ?The President alone cannot fight corruption.  We must not leave the President alone. We must constantly have suggestions and position papers for the President. But we should not leave him alone to some cabal to control”.

It is our duty and our right to contribute and participate in this Federal Government. Do not play the ostrich, there are time some of us might have problems, what is the party doing ? Don’t leave the Governors alone, don’t leave the President alone. Workers are complaining that there are no salaries, you just left the Governors alone. We are your Governors”, Senator Ajimobi declared.